Long term memory memory errors
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Long term memory & Memory errors. Part I พญ. กาญจนา พิทักษ์วัฒนานนท์ แพทย์เฉพาะทางอายุรกรรมระบบประสาทสมอง พ.บ.จากโรงพยาบาลรามาธิบดี ว.บ.จากสถาบันประสาทวิทยา แพทย์ประจำโรงพยาบาลวิภาวดี แพทย์ประจำโรงพยาบาลสมิติเวช ศรีราชา. Jimmy G. Transfer note : Helpless Demented Confused

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Long term memory memory errors

Long term memory& Memory errors

Part I

พญ. กาญจนา พิทักษ์วัฒนานนท์

แพทย์เฉพาะทางอายุรกรรมระบบประสาทสมอง

พ.บ.จากโรงพยาบาลรามาธิบดี

ว.บ.จากสถาบันประสาทวิทยา

แพทย์ประจำโรงพยาบาลวิภาวดี

แพทย์ประจำโรงพยาบาลสมิติเวช ศรีราชา


Jimmy g

Jimmy G.

  • Transfer note :

    • Helpless

    • Demented

    • Confused

    • Disoriented


Jimmy g1

Jimmy G.

Topic talking

  • Events of his childhood

  • Experiences in school

  • Experiences in Navy

    Demented

  • Loss >10 years new memory

  • Cannot remember himself in mirror


Jimmy g2

Jimmy G.

  • I do find myself forgetting things, once in a while things that just happened.

  • The past is clear, though.


Korsakoff s syndrome

Korsakoff ’s syndrome

Jimmy G.

  • Chronic alcoholism, vitamin B1 deficiency

  • Destroyed frontal & temporal lobes

  • Caused severe impaired memory

    Cannot form new LTM

    • Cannot recognize people he has just met

    • Cannot find his way to the corner drugstore


Long term memory memory errors

Fig. 6-1, p. 178


Memory loss in the movies

Memory loss in the movies

Memento : Lenny (Guy Pearce) cannot form new memories  recorded with a Polaroid camera / Tattooed onto his body

  • Spellbound : Gregory Peck

  • First Dates : Drew Barrymore ( LTM problem ) & Adam Sandler

  • Anastasia

  • Dead again

  • Goundhog Day

  • Long Kiss Goodnight

  • Who am I ?

  • The Bourne Identity

  • Paycheck

  • Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind


Long term memory

Long term memory

  • An “archive” of information about past events in our lives and knowledge we have learned.

  • Have large time span


Memory

Memory

  • A student who has just taking a seat in class

  • Be remembering about events that occurred at various times in the past.


Long term memory memory errors

Large time span of LTM

Fig. 6-3, p. 180


Memory1

Memory

  • His short term memory / working memory

    • He just sat down

    • Within 30 seconds

  • His long term memory (recent memory)

    • After 5 minutes ago

    • He had been walking to class

  • His long term memory (remote memory)

    • A memory from 10 years earlier of the elementary school he had attended in the 3rd grade


Introduction ltm

Introduction LTM

Large time span of LTM : not all the same

Fig 6.3

  • STM/WM : He just sat down in classroom

  • LTM : remember a memory from 10 years ago

    • Recent memory : more details

    • Remote memory : retain some information , lose other information


Memory2

Memory

  • LTM works closely with working memory to help create our ongoing experience.

    • What happens when Tony’s friend Cindy says, “Jim and I saw the new James Bond movie last night”

      • Tony’s working memory (STM)

      • Tony’s long term memory


Tony s working memory

Tony’s working memory

  • Holding the exact wording of that statement in his mind

  • Retrieving from LTM, the meaning of each words that make up the sentence

  • Accessing information from LTM, which help him understand the sentence what Cindy is saying


Tony s long term memory

Tony’s long term memory

  • The meaning of each words that make up the sentence

  • Additional information about movies, James Bond, and Cindy

  • Tony might not consciously think about all of this information


How to understanding cindy saying

How to understanding Cindy saying


Chapter summery 1

Chapter summery 1

LTM is an “archive” of information about past experiences in our lives and knowledge we have learned.

LTM coordinates with working memory to help create our ongoing experience.


Distinctions between ltm stm

Distinctions between LTM & STM

B.B. Murdoch, Jr. : experiment

  • Serial position

    • Get someone to read the stimulus list to you at a rate of about 1 word every 2 seconds.

      • Stimulus list : barricade, children, diet, gourd, folio, meter, journey, mohair, phoenix, crossbow, doorbell, muffler, mouse, menu, airplane

    • Right after the last word, write down all of the words you can remember

    • Did you remember more words from the 1st or 3rd five than from 2nd five ?


Serial position

Serial position

Murdoch : a large number of participants

  • Plotted the percentage recall for each word versus the word’s position on the list

    Murdoch’s Serial-position curve

  • Results : memory is better for words at the beginning of the list and at the end of the list.


Long term memory memory errors

memory is better for words at the beginning of the list and at the end of the list

Fig. 6-5, p. 182


Primacy effects is due to ltm

Primacy effects is due to LTM

Murray Glanzer and Anita Cunitz 1966

  • Rehearsal of the early words might lead to better memory by presenting the list at a slower pace

  • Increasing the time between each word  increased memory for the early words

    • There was more time between each word

    • Participants had more time to rehearse


Primacy effects is due to ltm1

Primacy effects is due to LTM


Recency effect is due to stm

Recency effect is due to STM

Glanzer and Cunitz 1966

  • The better memory for words at the end of the list is that the most recently presented words are still in STM

  • Participants count backward for 30 seconds right after hearing the last word of a list.

    • Counting prevented rehearsal and allowed time for information to be lost from STM

    • The delayed caused by the counting eliminated the recency effect


Recency effect is due to stm1

Recency effect is due to STM


Serial position1

Serial position

Primacy effect : superior memory for stimuli presented at the beginning of a sequence  rehearsal & attention

Recency effect : superior memory for stimuli presented at the end of a sequence  still in STM


Long term memory memory errors

Table 6-1, p. 184


Chapter summery 2

Chapter summery 2

The primacy and recency effects that occur in the serial position curve have been linked to LTM and STM, respectively.


Clive wearing

Clive Wearing

  • Viral encephalitis

  • Functioning STM

  • Unable to form new LTM


Long term memory memory errors

H.M.

Functioning STM

  • Temporal lobe epilepsy (medical failure)

  • Surgeons removed his hippocampus

  • Eliminated seizure

  • Eliminated his ability to form new LTM


Long term memory memory errors

K.F.

Poor STM

  • Digit span = 2

  • Reduced recency effect in her serial position curve

    Functioning LTM

  • Ability to form and hold new memories of events in her life


Stm wm ltm are two separate process

STM / WM & LTM are two separate process

Neuropsychological evidence :

  • Clive : viral encephalitis

  • H.M. : temporal lobectomy

  • K.F. : digit span = 2


Coding in ltm

Coding in LTM

  • The form in which stimuli are represented in the mind

    • Visual coding : recognize someone based on his appearance

    • Auditory coding : recognize someone based on his voice/sound

    • Semantic coding : remember the general gist/meaning of something that happened in the past


Stm wm ltm are two separate process1

STM / WM & LTM are two separate process

Coding in LTM :

  • Semantic coding is the predominant type of coding in LTM

  • Jacqueline Sachs 1967 demonstration

    • Participants listen to a tape recording of a passage like the one in the following demonstration :

      Reading a passage


Reading a passage 1

Reading a passage 1

Read the following passage :

There is an interesting story about the telescope. In Holland, a man named Lippershey was an eyeglass maker. One day his children were playing with some lenses. They discovered that things seemed very close if two lenses were held about a foot apart. Lippershey began experimenting and his “Spyglass” attracted much attention. He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. Galileo at once realized the importance of the discovery and set about to build an instrument of his own.


Reading a passage 2

Reading a passage 2

Now cover up the passage and indicate which of the following sentences is identical to a sentence in the passage and which sentences are changed.

  • He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist.

  • Galileo, the great Italian scientist, sent him a letter about it.

  • A letter about it was sent to Galileo, the great Italian scientist.

  • He sent Galileo, the great Italian scientist, a letter about it.


Reading a passage 3

Reading a passage 3

Which sentence did you pick for identical ?

  • Many choose 1, 3, 4 ( no one choose 2 )

  • Correct answer : 1

    1 = identical

    2 = changed , different meaning

    3 = not identical , same meaning

    4 = not identical , same meaning


Chapter summery 3

Chapter summery 3

The following evidence supports the idea that STM and LTM are two separate processes :

1) double dissociation between STM and LTM in patients with brain damage

2) differences in the primary mode of coding, with LTM more likelyto be coded semantically than STM.


Type of ltm

Type of LTM

Declarative memory : our conscious recollection of events we have experienced or facts we have learned.

Implicit memory ( non-declarative ): memory that occurs when some previous experience improves our performance on a task, even though we do not consciously remember the experience.


Long term memory memory errors

Type of LTM

Fig. 6-7, p. 187


Declarative memory

Declarative memory

Two types ( information / experience ) :

  • episodic memory : memory for personal events in our lives.

  • semantic memory: memory that involves fact and knowledge,

    • such as knowledge about how an automobile engine works or the names of famous modern painters.


Chapter summery 4

Chapter summery 4

Declarative memory is our conscious recollection of events we have experienced or facts we have learned.

  • There are two types of declarative memory

    • Episodic memory is memory for personal events in our live

    • Semantic memory is memory for facts and knowledge


Episodic memory

Episodic memory

  • Memory for events

  • Involve mental time travel

    Tulving’s “self-knowing” or “remembering”

    • I can travel back in my mind to 1966 to remember cresting the top of a mountain near the California coast for the first time and seeing the Pacific Ocean far below, stretching into the distance. I remember sitting in the car, seeing the ocean, saying “Wow!” to my wife who was sitting next to me, and some of emotions I was experiencing.


Semantic memory

Semantic memory

  • Memory for knowledge ( facts, vocabulary, numbers, concepts )

  • Without mental time travel, no experience

    Tulving’s “knowing”

    • I know many facts about the Pacific Ocean – where it is located, that it is big, that if you travel west from San Francisco you end up in Japan


Long term memory memory errors

Declarative memory

Episodic and semantic memories

Table 6-3, p. 188


Chapter summery 5

Chapter summery 5

  • According to Tulving, the defining property of the experience of episodic memory is that it involves mental time travel ( self-knowing or remembering ).

  • The experience of semantic memory ( knowing ) does not involve mental time travel.


The separation of episodic and semantic memories

The separation of episodic and semantic memories

K.C.

  • 30 years old man

  • Motorcycle accident

  • Damage : Hippocampus and surrounding structures

    Lost episodic memory

    • He can no longer relive any of the events of his past.

    • He can remember that certain things happened


The separation of episodic and semantic memories1

The separation of episodic and semantic memories

K.C.

  • Lost episodic memory

    • He knows that his brother died ( 2 years ago )

    • He is not, however, aware of experiencing things such as hearing about the circumstances of his brother’s death, where he was when he heard about it, or what happened at the funeral.

  • Intact semantic memory

    • He also remember facts like where the eating utensils are located in the kitchen and the difference between a strike and a spare in bowling.


  • The separation of episodic and semantic memories2

    The separation of episodic and semantic memories

    Italian woman

    • At the age of 44

    • Brain damage by encephalitis

    • Headache and fever followed by hallucinations

      Lost semantic memory

      • She had difficulty recognizingfamiliar people, famous people

      • She could not recall facts

      • She had trouble shopping because she couldn’t remember the meaning of words on the shopping listor where things were in the store


    Long term memory memory errors

    The separation of episodic and semantic memories

    Table 6-4, p. 189


    The separation of episodic and semantic memories3

    The separation of episodic and semantic memories

    • Neuropsychological evidence

      Double dissociations :

      • K.C. : MCA poor episodic memory

      • Italian woman : encephalitis poor semantic memory

  • Brain imaging evidence

    • Brian Levine and coworkers 2004


  • The separation of episodic and semantic memories4

    The separation of episodic and semantic memories

    Brain imaging evidence

    • Brian Levine and coworkers 2004

      • Participants keep diaries of audio taped descriptions of everyday events and facts drawn from their world knowledge

        MRI scanning

      • Participants listened to these descriptions

      • The everyday experiences elicited retrieval of episodic memories

      • The facts elicited retrieval of semantic memories

        Results : many brain areas were involved

        Conclusion : retrieving episodic and semantic memories causes overlapping but different patterns of brain activity


    Chapter summery 6

    Chapter summery 6

    • The following evidence supports the idea that episodic and semantic memory involve different mechanisms :

      1) double dissociation of episodic and semantic memory in patients with brain damage

      2) brain imaging, which indicates that overlapping but different areas are activated by episodic and semantic memories


    Connections between episodic and semantic memories

    Connections between episodic and semantic memories

    • Episodic memories can be lost, leaving only semantic

    • Semantic memory can be enhanced if associated with episodic memory

    • Semantic memory can influence our experience by influencing attention


    Episodic memories can be lost leaving only semantic

    Episodic memories can be lost, leaving only semantic

    Consider how we acquire the knowledge that makes up our semantic memories.

    • Sitting in the sixth grade, you learn about how the U.S. government work.

      Episodic memory :

    • Then in the seventh grade you look back and remember what was going on in class as you were learning about U.S. government.

      Semantic memory :

    • If you have lost the episodic component of this memory and can no longer remember the specific day you were sitting there in class, you are experiencing a semantic memory


    Episodic memories can be lost leaving only semantic1

    Episodic memories can be lost, leaving only semantic

    • The knowledge that makes up semantic memories

      is initially attained through a personal experience

      that could be the basis of an episodic memory,

      but that memory for this experience often fades,

      leaving only semantic memory


    Semantic memory can be enhanced if associated with episodic memory

    Semantic memory can be enhanced if associated with episodic memory

    Personal semantic memory :

    • semantic memories that have personal significance

    • Easier to remember than semantic memories that are not personally significant

      • You would be more likely to recall the name of a popular singer in a memory test if you had attended one of his or her concerts than you had just read about the singer in magazines.


    Semantic memory can influence our experience by influencing attention

    Semantic memory can influence our experience by influencing attention


    Semantic memory can influence our experience by influencing attention1

    Semantic memory can influence our experience by influencing attention

    Consider this situation

    Stephen and Seth are watching a football game.

    • The quarterback takes the snap, is rushed hard, and flips the ball over the oncoming linemen for a completion.

      Seth remembers the details of the play, which was pass over the left side, but the play doesn’t stand out for Stephen

    • Seth : has semantic memory (knowledge about football), helped direct his attention

    • Stephan : no semantic memory, just remembered that there were running plays and passing plays


    Chapter summery 7

    Chapter summery 7

    • Even though episodic and semantic memories are served by different mechanisms, they are connected in the following ways:,

      1) episodic memories can be lost leaving semantic

      2) semantic memories can be enhanced by association with episodic memories

      3) semantic memory can influence attention, and therefore what information we take in and potentially remember later.


    Type of ltm1

    Type of LTM

    Declarative memory : our conscious recollection of events we have experienced or facts we have learned.

    Implicit memory ( non-declarative ): memory that occurs when some previous experience improves our performance on a task, even though we do not consciously remember the experience.


    Type of ltm2

    Type of LTM

    Declarative memory :conscious

    Episodic memory : self knowing , remembering

    Semantic memory : knowing , facts

    Implicit memory ( non-declarative ) :

    not conscious , non knowing


    Chapter summery 8

    Chapter summery 8

    • Implicit memory occurs when previous experience improves our performance on a task, even though we do not remember the experience.

    • Tulving callsimplicit memory non knowing.


    Long term memory memory errors

    Type of LTM

    Fig. 6-7, p. 187


    Implicit memory

    Implicit memory

    Many types :

    • Repetition priming : when the response to an item increases in speed or accuracy because it has been encountered recently.

    • Procedural memory :memory for how to do things, such as riding a bike, typing, or playing a musical instrument.


    Repetition priming

    Repetition priming

    For example :

    • Seeing the word “bird” may cause you to respond more quickly to it than to another word you had not seen


    Repetition priming experiment

    Repetition priming experiment

    Tulving demonstration 1962

    • Presenting participants with 96 words

      • The first stimulus is called priming stimulus

    • Followed by a time interval

    • Then the test stimulus is presented

      • Giving them a word-completion test

      • The test stimulus can be the same as the priming words or can be different


    Repetition priming experiment1

    Repetition priming experiment

    Word-completion test

    • Priming stimulus : Cabaret

    • Test stimulus : C _ _ a r _ t

      Question is “ Did the priming stimulus affect the response to the test stimulus ? ”


    Repetition priming experiment2

    Repetition priming experiment

    Tulving demonstration 1962

    • Priming words : new words = ½ : ½

    • Results : ( 47% : 30% )

      • Participants completed more word fragments for words they had seen before than for words they hadn’t seen before.


    Repetition priming experiment3

    Repetition priming experiment

    Tulving demonstration 1962

    • Conclusion :

      • Repetition priming has occurred, because previously seeing the words improved performance on the word-fragment test


    Repetition priming experiment4

    Repetition priming experiment

    Tulving demonstration 1962

    • Is it implicit memory ?

      • Not consciously ?

  • Methods :

    • Don’t ask : Have you seen this word before ? (memory test)

    • Asking participants to solve a problem ( Create a word from these letters ) : implicit memory

    • Instruct participants to response as quickly as possible, by saying the first answer that comes to mind (unconscious remember)

    • Measured result : Word-completion test

    • Confirmed implicit : Using a recognition memory test


  • Repetition priming experiment5

    Repetition priming experiment

    Tulving demonstration 1962

    • Measuring

      • How many word fragments the participant was able to complete

      • How quickly the participant responds


    Recognition and recall

    Recognition and Recall

    Recall :

    • is also involved when a person is asked to recollect

      • things that have happened in his or her life, such as graduating from high school,

      • or facts they have learned, such as the capital of Nebraska


    Recognition and recall1

    Recognition and Recall

    Recall test :

    • All of STM experiments in chapter 5

      • Participants are presented with stimuli

      • After delay

      • Participants are asked to remember as many of stimuli as possible


    Recall test

    Recall test

    • The longest string you are able to reproduce without error is your digit span.

    • The typical span is

      between 5 and 8

    2 1 4 9

    3 9 6 7 8

    6 4 9 7 8 4

    7 3 8 2 0 1 5

    8 4 2 6 1 4 3 2

    4 8 2 3 9 2 8 0 7

    5 8 5 2 9 8 1 6 3 7


    Recall test1

    Recall test

    • Task 1 : Slowly read the following letters. Look away and count to 15. Then write them down.

      g c b t v p

    • Task 2 : Now do the same thing for these letters.

      f l k s y g


    Recall test2

    Recall test

    • The delayed-response task in monkeys

    Observe

    Delay

    Correct : reward


    Recall test3

    Recall test

    • Monkey first looked at a fixation point : X

    • Square was flashed  then off

    • After delay : off fixation X

    x

    x

    --ll----------------

    -------llllllllllllllllll-

    ---------------ll--


    Recognition and recall2

    Recognition and Recall

    Recognition memory test

    • Typical procedure :

      • Present stimuli during a study period

      • After delay

      • Present the same stimuli plus other stimuli that were not presented

        Task : Pick the stimuli that were originally presented


    Recognition test

    Recognition test

    Read the following passage :

    There is an interesting story about the telescope. In Holland, a man named Lippershey was an eyeglass maker. One day his children were playing with some lenses. They discovered that things seemed very close if two lenses were held about a foot apart. Lippershey began experimenting and his “Spyglass” attracted much attention. He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. Galileo at once realized the importance of the discovery and set about to build an instrument of his own.


    Recognition test1

    Recognition test

    which of the following sentences is identical to a sentence in the passage ?

    • He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist.

    • Galileo, the great Italian scientist, sent him a letter about it.

    • A letter about it was sent to Galileo, the great Italian scientist.

    • He sent Galileo, the great Italian scientist, a letter about it.


    Recognition and recall3

    Recognition and Recall

    Recognition memory test

    • Multiple choice exam

      • Pick the correct answer from a number of alternatives


    Recognition and recall4

    Recognition and Recall

    Recognition memory test

    • Tulving’s recognition experiment

      • Presenting his participants with a list that contained both words they had seen before and new words.

      • Task was to indicate which of the words they had seen before

        Tulving tested recognition 1 hour after presenting the original list and 7 days after that

  • Recognition test compared with Word-completion test at 1 hour and 7 days


  • Recognition test compared with word completion test at 1 hour and 7 days

    Recognition test compared with Word-completion test at 1 hour and 7 days


    Recognition test compared with word completion test at 1 hour and 7 days1

    Recognition test compared with Word-completion test at 1 hour and 7 days

    Recognition test : lower after 7 days

    Word-completion test : remained the same

    This suggests that

    • Performance on the word-completion test did not depend on conscious memory for recognized words


    Recognition and recall5

    Recognition and Recall

    • Test the patients with brain damage, who have lost the ability to retain LTM, provides a demonstrate of “pure” implicit memory

      Elizabeth Warrington and Lawrence Weiskrantz 1968 :

      tested 5 patients with

      Korsakoff’s syndrome


    Korsakoff s syndrome1

    Korsakoff’s syndrome

    Jimmy G.

    • Chronic alcoholism, vitamin B1 deficiency

    • Destroyed frontal & temporal lobes

    • Caused severe impaired memory

      Cannot form new LTM

      • Cannot recognize people he has just met

      • Cannot find his way to the corner drugstore


    Long term memory memory errors

    tested 5 patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome

    by presenting incomplete pictures

    such as fig 6.11a was presented first,

    and then participants were shown

    more and more complete versions

    until they were able to identify the picture

    Fig. 6-11, p. 194


    Presenting incomplete pictures

    Presenting incomplete pictures

    • Results : the third day of testing these participants made fewer errors before they were able to identify the pictures than they did at the beginning of training, even though they had no memory for any of the previous day’s training.


    Presenting incomplete pictures1

    Presenting incomplete pictures

    Korsakoff’s syndrome

    • No memory for experience

    • No episodic memory

      Improvement

  • Represents an effect of implicit memory

    • Non knowing

    • Repetition priming


  • Long term memory memory errors

    Type of LTM

    Fig. 6-7, p. 187


    Procedural memory

    Procedural memory

    For example :

    • The skill involved in doing these things

      ( riding a bike, typing, playing a musical instrument ) remains

      even after there is no memory for learning the skill


    Procedural memory1

    Procedural memory

    Describe :

    • How tying your shoes ?

    • How riding a bike ? How you keep your balance ?

    • How writing ?

    • How reading ?

    • How walking ?


    Procedural memory2

    Procedural memory

    • Riding and typing : motor skill that involve movement and muscle action

    • Reading : linguistics skill


    Procedural memory3

    Procedural memory

    People that lost episodic memory

    • Procedural memory is present

    • Performance can improved with practice

      Jimmy G. , Clive Wearing , K.C.

    • can tie his shoes , can still play the piano , learned how to sort and stack books in library


    Procedural memory4

    Procedural memory

    People that lost episodic memory

    • Can’t form new LTM

    • Can’t remember learning to do

  • Can do skill that used old LTM

  • And still learn new skill

    • Performance can improve with practice


  • Propaganda effect

    Propaganda effect

    Implicit memory may effect our behavior

    Implicit can lead to errors of memory

    • T.J.Perfect and C.Askew 1994 experiment

    • Advertisements : product’s name

      • First time thinking of : believe that we are unaffected

      • After read or heard before : implicit memory

      • Later : seemed familiar , believe may be true


    Chapter summery 9

    Chapter summery 9

    • Two types of implicit memory are

      • repetition priming : when presenting a stimulus affects the response to the same stimulus or a similar stimulus when presented later

      • procedural memory : memory for how to do things.

    • The propaganda effect is an example of implicit memory.


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