Culture and the self
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Culture and The Self. Sources of Cultural Differences. Evoked culture—produced by environmental differences (e.g., source of food). Transmitted culture—produced by communication of beliefs from generation to generation (e.g., morals). Individualist Individual success Take care of oneself

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Sources of Cultural Differences

  • Evoked culture—produced by environmental differences (e.g., source of food).

  • Transmitted culture—produced by communication of beliefs from generation to generation (e.g., morals).


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Individualist

Individual success

Take care of oneself

Express individual identity

Collectivist

Group success

Take care of each other

Restrain self to fit in with the group

Individualist vs. Collectivist Culture


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Individualist vs. Collectivist Differences in Self-Construal

  • Responses to the 20 statements test (Cross et al., 1995)

  • Attribute checklist (Markus & Kitayama)


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Individualist vs. Collectivist Differences in Self-Enhancement

  • Better than average effect.

  • Self-Serving attributions.


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Individualist vs. Collectivist Differences in Cognitive Dissonance

  • Kitayama et al. (2004)

    • Previous research—less dissonance in collectivists.

    • Kitayama et al. theorized that dissonance can threaten the independent self or the interdependent self.

    • Japanese p’s are affected by dissonance when it threatens the interdependent self.


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