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Ch. 6. Memory. The information-processing model of memory describes how information is encoded, organized, and stored in memory, and how it is retrieved from memory. Information-processing Model Movie. 1. The Sensory Registers . Information-Processing Model

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Ch. 6
  • Memory
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The information-processing model of memory describes how information is encoded, organized, and stored in memory, and how it is retrieved from memory

  • Information-processing Model Movie
1 the sensory registers
1. The Sensory Registers

Information-Processing Model

  • A. Visual and Auditory Registers
    • Visual icons and auditory echoes
    • Unlimited capacity, but rapid decay
  • B. Attention
    • Selects further processing
    • Cocktail-party phenomenon
2 short term memory
2. Short-Term Memory
  • A. Capacity of STM
    • Chunking
      • 5-10 bits (older theory)
      • What is rehearsed in 1.5 to 2 seconds
  • B. Encoding in STM
    • Auditory and visual
      • Visual encoded more efficiently
  • C. Maintaining STM
    • Rote rehearsal of repeating something
      • Does not result in long term memory
3 long term memory
3. Long-Term Memory
  • A. Capacity of LTM
    • Vast amount of information may be stored for many years
  • B. Encoding in LTM
    • Semantic= general facts
    • Episodic=info with personal meaning and imagery
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C. Serial Position Effect
    • People tend to recall the first and last items in a list
    • Short- and long-term memory work together
  • D. Maintaining LTM
    • Rote repetition
    • Elaborative rehearsal
      • Processing information in a meaningful way
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E. Types of LTM
      • Semantic memories= general facts
      • Procedural memories= motor skills and habits
      • Emotional memories= learned emotional responses
      • Explicit memory
        • Intentional memory
      • Implicit memory
        • Unintentional memory
  • Click here to view the Types of Memories table
4 the biology of memory
4. The Biology of Memory
  • A. How Are Memories Formed?
    • Changes in synaptic connections among neural cells
    • This is called consolidation
  • B. Where are Memories Stored?
    • There is no one place
    • Different parts of the brain are specialized
  • Biology of Memory Movie
5 forgetting
5. Forgetting
  • A. The Biology of Forgetting
      • Decay theory
      • Retrograde amnesia
  • B. Experience and Forgetting
      • Retroactive interference
      • Proactive interference
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In retroactive interference, new information interferes with old information already in LTM; proactive interference refers to the process by which old information already in LTM interferes with new information. Interference affects both storage and retrieval of information

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C. How to Reduce Forgetting
    • Develop motivation
    • Practice memory skills
    • Be confident
    • Minimize distraction and stay focused
    • Make meaning connections to what is in long-term memory
    • Use mnemonics
      • Mnemonics Movie
    • Use mental imagery
    • Use retrieval cues
6 special topics in memory
6. Special Topics in Memory
  • A. Autobiographical Memory
    • Recollection of events in our life
  • B. Childhood Amnesia
    • Generally poor memory for events prior to age 2
  • C. Extraordinary Memory
    • Usually due to well developed memory techniques
  • D. Flashbulb Memories
    • Vivid memories of dramatic event
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E. Eyewitness Testimony
    • May be related to what they heard or imagined
  • F. Recovered Memories
    • Later recall of forgotten dramatic event
  • G. Cultural Influences on Memory
    • Cultural values and practices influence what kinds of things we remember and how easily we recall them
role of priming on memory
Role of priming on memory
  • Person is first exposed to a stimulus, usually a word or picture
  • Later, the person is shown a fragment of the same stimulus and is asked to complete it
  • Result is that people are more likely to complete fragments with items seen earlier than with other equally plausible items
  • Amnesic patients do as well as people with normal memory, indicating that priming is implicit, not explicit memory
sq3r what is it
SQ3R – What Is It?

Stands for survey, question, read, recite, review

  • Survey - Before you begin reading, look at headings, captions, summary, etc.
  • Question – Translate each heading into questions about the text to follow.
  • Read – Read and try to answer above questions
  • Recite – Recite from memory the information you remember and the answers to your questions
  • Review – Review notes, relate material to relevant ideas, make examples from experience, etc.
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