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Ch. 6. Memory. The information-processing model of memory describes how information is encoded, organized, and stored in memory, and how it is retrieved from memory. Information-processing Model Movie. 1. The Sensory Registers . Information-Processing Model

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Ch. 6

  • Memory

The information-processing model of memory describes how information is encoded, organized, and stored in memory, and how it is retrieved from memory

  • Information-processing Model Movie

1 the sensory registers
1. The Sensory Registers

Information-Processing Model

  • A. Visual and Auditory Registers

    • Visual icons and auditory echoes

    • Unlimited capacity, but rapid decay

  • B. Attention

    • Selects further processing

    • Cocktail-party phenomenon

2 short term memory
2. Short-Term Memory

  • A. Capacity of STM

    • Chunking

      • 5-10 bits (older theory)

      • What is rehearsed in 1.5 to 2 seconds

  • B. Encoding in STM

    • Auditory and visual

      • Visual encoded more efficiently

  • C. Maintaining STM

    • Rote rehearsal of repeating something

      • Does not result in long term memory

3 long term memory
3. Long-Term Memory

  • A. Capacity of LTM

    • Vast amount of information may be stored for many years

  • B. Encoding in LTM

    • Semantic= general facts

    • Episodic=info with personal meaning and imagery

  • C. Serial Position Effect

    • People tend to recall the first and last items in a list

    • Short- and long-term memory work together

  • D. Maintaining LTM

    • Rote repetition

    • Elaborative rehearsal

      • Processing information in a meaningful way

  • E. Types of LTM

    • Semantic memories= general facts

    • Procedural memories= motor skills and habits

    • Emotional memories= learned emotional responses

    • Explicit memory

      • Intentional memory

    • Implicit memory

      • Unintentional memory

  • Click here to view the Types of Memories table

  • 4 the biology of memory
    4. The Biology of Memory

    • A. How Are Memories Formed?

      • Changes in synaptic connections among neural cells

      • This is called consolidation

    • B. Where are Memories Stored?

      • There is no one place

      • Different parts of the brain are specialized

    • Biology of Memory Movie

    5 forgetting
    5. Forgetting

    • A. The Biology of Forgetting

      • Decay theory

      • Retrograde amnesia

  • B. Experience and Forgetting

    • Retroactive interference

    • Proactive interference

  • In retroactive interference, new information interferes with old information already in LTM; proactive interference refers to the process by which old information already in LTM interferes with new information. Interference affects both storage and retrieval of information

    • C. How to Reduce Forgetting

      • Develop motivation

      • Practice memory skills

      • Be confident

      • Minimize distraction and stay focused

      • Make meaning connections to what is in long-term memory

      • Use mnemonics

        • Mnemonics Movie

      • Use mental imagery

      • Use retrieval cues

    6 special topics in memory
    6. Special Topics in Memory

    • A. Autobiographical Memory

      • Recollection of events in our life

    • B. Childhood Amnesia

      • Generally poor memory for events prior to age 2

    • C. Extraordinary Memory

      • Usually due to well developed memory techniques

    • D. Flashbulb Memories

      • Vivid memories of dramatic event

    • E. Eyewitness Testimony

      • May be related to what they heard or imagined

    • F. Recovered Memories

      • Later recall of forgotten dramatic event

    • G. Cultural Influences on Memory

      • Cultural values and practices influence what kinds of things we remember and how easily we recall them

    Role of priming on memory
    Role of priming on memory

    • Person is first exposed to a stimulus, usually a word or picture

    • Later, the person is shown a fragment of the same stimulus and is asked to complete it

    • Result is that people are more likely to complete fragments with items seen earlier than with other equally plausible items

    • Amnesic patients do as well as people with normal memory, indicating that priming is implicit, not explicit memory

    Sq3r what is it
    SQ3R – What Is It?

    Stands for survey, question, read, recite, review

    • Survey - Before you begin reading, look at headings, captions, summary, etc.

    • Question – Translate each heading into questions about the text to follow.

    • Read – Read and try to answer above questions

    • Recite – Recite from memory the information you remember and the answers to your questions

    • Review – Review notes, relate material to relevant ideas, make examples from experience, etc.