Basic GPS Course

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NBGSARA Basic GPS Course. 2. Agenda. 09:00 . . . NBGSARA Basic GPS Course. 3. Notebook and Pencil . Always carry a small notebook and pencil (it works in the rain) when you travel in the bush.Mark down your:bearings, current position waypoint before entering the bush.. . NBGSARA Basic G

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Basic GPS Course

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1. Basic GPS Course Or, Where the heck am I ???

2. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 2 Agenda 09:00 –

3. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 3 Notebook and Pencil Always carry a small notebook and pencil (it works in the rain) when you travel in the bush. Mark down your: bearings, current position waypoint before entering the bush. Remind students that good SAR practice is to take constant notes of key information such as: Where you leave a trail or road What bearing you are taking The current time Significant geographic features around you Remind students that good SAR practice is to take constant notes of key information such as: Where you leave a trail or road What bearing you are taking The current time Significant geographic features around you

4. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 4 What is the Global Positioning System? Space-based, worldwide radio-navigation system. Constellation of 24 satellites(plus spares) in geosynchronous orbits, and a network of ground control stations. Free access, highly accurate positioning data is available to GPS receivers anywhere in the world. Developed and owned by the US Dept of Defense. These next slides are meant to be a high level overview. If you are really “into it”, there is lots of material on the web about the mathematics and calculations used for GPS navigation.These next slides are meant to be a high level overview. If you are really “into it”, there is lots of material on the web about the mathematics and calculations used for GPS navigation.

5. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 5 Many Different Receivers Garmin, Magellan, Trimble etc. Handheld, surveyor, permanent mounted in vehicles. Basically you get what you pay for. If you are surveying for a building or a bridge the units cost $10,000’s.Basically you get what you pay for. If you are surveying for a building or a bridge the units cost $10,000’s.

6. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 6 How Does GPS work? Satellites constantly transmit a stream of coded signals at low power. GPS receivers are programmed with the general positions of the satellite constellations, and their identifier data.

7. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 7 How Does GPS work? If the distance to: 3 satellites is known—a 2-dimensional position can be determined. 4 satellites is known—a 3-dimensional position can be determined. Note: this is what you always want to have. More satellites—more accurate position. Want to make sure the satellites are not grouped together. You may have 4 satellites, but if they are close together you won’t have good triangulation (trilateration)Want to make sure the satellites are not grouped together. You may have 4 satellites, but if they are close together you won’t have good triangulation (trilateration)

8. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 8 How Accurate is it? Depends on the type of receiver, and terrain. Average handheld receiver: 10 to 15 meters – newer models 5 meters Again, need good satellite reception and stable. Not fluctuating.Again, need good satellite reception and stable. Not fluctuating.

9. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 9 Before Proceeding! Need to cover some basic background material. Give you a better understanding of what your GPS is telling you!

10. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 10 First things first! A Review! Need to know about maps and coordinate reference systems: Universal Transverse Mercator

11. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 11 Positioning/Mapping Review When we discuss our ‘position’, we always use some form of reference frame. We do this automatically: “I’m about 10 feet in front of you”; or “He lives next to the Tim Hortons”; or “I’m at Grid reference 318 765”. The last statement uses a Grid reference – an artificial grid of lines drawn on a map to provide a standardized reference frame for all users.

12. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 12 Universal Transverse Mercator We use the UTM (Universal Trans Mercator) grid reference system, since it is over-laid on all topo maps, and is widely accepted for terrestrial operations. Maps are by necessity flat representations of the curved surface of the earth. They use “Projections” to approximate the curves of the earth’s surface. Mercator projections “peel back” the curved surface of the earth, and represent areas as flat “Zones” on maps.

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15. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 15 UTM zones of Canada

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17. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 17 UTM for Our Area - 20 or 19T

18. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 18 So…….if we look at the map…..

19. A Grid Square (1 km x 1 km)

20. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 20 UTM Example

21. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 21 Easting & Northing The Northing numbers mean actual distance North of the equator. Since Canada’s Southernmost point is over 4,620,000 m north of the equator, all Northing figures will be above this number. The Easting numbers measure from an imaginary line 500,000 m to the west of the zone’s central meridian. This means that lines to the left of the central meridian will be lower than 500,000, and those to the right higher.

22. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 22 MGRS – A subset of UTM Divides UTM in smaller 100,000m squares identified by two letters—eg. LG An MGRS is made up of 5 parts: 1) A zone, 2) latitude band, 3) MGRS square identification, 4) an easting, and 5) a northing

23. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 23 MGRS example

24. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 24 All those things to set ? Why do we care about all these numbers? Because all GPS units are configured to work with multiple reference frames, anywhere in the world. They give far more information than is required for local navigation. Practically, this means YOU must be able to configure a GPS to work correctly in YOUR zone (with your maps) and be able to extract the important numbers from a position screen.

25. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 25 Which of the 36 Grid Systems???? The student needs to know and understand which of these grids to select based on the situation.The student needs to know and understand which of these grids to select based on the situation.

26. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 26 Datum

27. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 27 Which of the 127 Datums to Use???? The datum must be set to correspond with the topographic map you are using. Some are still based on NAD27, others on NAD83. Normally, the Plans Chief will tell you which datum to use. They need to be able to reference the information you radio in to the map they are using. If not, the measurements will be out 100’s of meters. This is one way for the Plans Chief to know if you are set on the wrong datum—you give a bridge location waypoint in MGRS, but when he plots it ……its not in the right place on the map.The datum must be set to correspond with the topographic map you are using. Some are still based on NAD27, others on NAD83. Normally, the Plans Chief will tell you which datum to use. They need to be able to reference the information you radio in to the map they are using. If not, the measurements will be out 100’s of meters. This is one way for the Plans Chief to know if you are set on the wrong datum—you give a bridge location waypoint in MGRS, but when he plots it ……its not in the right place on the map.

28. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 28 Check Datum

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30. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 30 What can a GPS do for you? Provide your current position—anywhere, anytime. Display a line of past positions (a track) and store them. Store a large number of known locations—waypoints. Give you real-time estimates on your travel progress.

31. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 31 What the GPS will NOT do? Will not: Give much useful data without a map. Replace map and compass. Necessarily give an accurate indication of magnetic north or current heading. Assist you in getting “home” unless you can tell it where home is. Be accurate over short distances—less than 15m. Be of any use without batteries or a clear view of sky.

32. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 32 Satellite Reception Screen Inner ring is the 45° circle in the sky. Outer ring is the horizon. Need to make sure satellites are not bunched in one spot. May have 4 of them, but they need to be spaced out. If signal is constantly fluctuating—wait until it settles down, otherwise you will have major errors in your navigation. Sometimes the satellites over your position are not providing a strong signal. Other satellites will move into position later (an hour or two). Inner ring is the 45° circle in the sky. Outer ring is the horizon. Need to make sure satellites are not bunched in one spot. May have 4 of them, but they need to be spaced out. If signal is constantly fluctuating—wait until it settles down, otherwise you will have major errors in your navigation. Sometimes the satellites over your position are not providing a strong signal. Other satellites will move into position later (an hour or two).

33. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 33 Setup Screens Check and use your manual. You have to practice and quickly know where to find screens in the field. Note: use the laminated field cards as a quick reference.Check and use your manual. You have to practice and quickly know where to find screens in the field. Note: use the laminated field cards as a quick reference.

34. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 34 Setup Position Format, Map Datum

35. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 35 Setup of Heading

36. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 36 Setting Waypoints Make sure you have good satellite reception before marking a waypoint, otherwise the accuracy will be bad. Consider using the averaging function – take at least 60 hits before accepting the waypoint.Make sure you have good satellite reception before marking a waypoint, otherwise the accuracy will be bad. Consider using the averaging function – take at least 60 hits before accepting the waypoint.

37. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 37 Waypoint GOTO Make sure you have picked the right waypoint. If you have 20 waypoints stored it is easy to highlight the wrong one. Check the “Map” to make sure you have the right one. Does the distance and bearing make sense based on your map and compass?Make sure you have picked the right waypoint. If you have 20 waypoints stored it is easy to highlight the wrong one. Check the “Map” to make sure you have the right one. Does the distance and bearing make sense based on your map and compass?

38. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 38 Navigating to Waypoint Give reminder about the difference between Heading and Bearing. Once you reach your destination – remember to “Stop Navigating”, otherwise the GPS will keep telling you how to get to the waypoint.Give reminder about the difference between Heading and Bearing. Once you reach your destination – remember to “Stop Navigating”, otherwise the GPS will keep telling you how to get to the waypoint.

39. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 39 Be Careful with “GOTO”

40. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 40 Setup of Tracks Turn Track Log “On” Set colour to something other than “transparent”.

41. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 41 A Point About Accuracy When things go south !!!!!!! During this exercise (for about 2 hours), could not rely on the GPS for navigation or to accurately say “where was I”. Could have been due to satellites being “off-line” by the US military, or not enough satellites to get an accurate fix. Note: all GPSs performed the same way during this timeframe. This is why you ALWAYS need your compass, map, and know where you are on the map.When things go south !!!!!!! During this exercise (for about 2 hours), could not rely on the GPS for navigation or to accurately say “where was I”. Could have been due to satellites being “off-line” by the US military, or not enough satellites to get an accurate fix. Note: all GPSs performed the same way during this timeframe. This is why you ALWAYS need your compass, map, and know where you are on the map.

42. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 42 Position Formats These represent some of the different formats used by either RCMP helicopter, JRCC (plane, helicopter) or GSAR itself. Further training will be given on setting latitude and longitude.These represent some of the different formats used by either RCMP helicopter, JRCC (plane, helicopter) or GSAR itself. Further training will be given on setting latitude and longitude.

43. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 43 SAR Uses Finding start positions Marking end positions Mapping trails found Route planning—getting around unsafe areas Navigate to another team, waypoint, etc. with a GOTO What happens if the GPS fails—how do I get back home? Repeat, repeat, repeat that SAR members must always carry a field notebook and pencil. They must write down their current position, the azimuth/bearing they are taking and the current time. They must write the time they reached each destination point. Each time they navigate to another waypoint they must write in their field notebook their current position and new bearing. They must check the accuracy/satellite reception of the GPs unit before marking a waypoint. All this information will be needed/useful when writing their debrief form when they return to the Command Post. Repeat, repeat, repeat that SAR members must always carry a field notebook and pencil. They must write down their current position, the azimuth/bearing they are taking and the current time. They must write the time they reached each destination point. Each time they navigate to another waypoint they must write in their field notebook their current position and new bearing. They must check the accuracy/satellite reception of the GPs unit before marking a waypoint. All this information will be needed/useful when writing their debrief form when they return to the Command Post.

44. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 44 Downloading/Uploading Another training module will be given to show the uploading/downloading to/from GPS/computer mapping software.Another training module will be given to show the uploading/downloading to/from GPS/computer mapping software.

45. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 45 Always Remember! Allow unit to lock on to 4 or more satellites. ALWAYS save your starting point as a waypoint (let’s call it “home”)—write it in your field notebook. Clear the track log & old waypoints before starting a task. Set the odometer/trip to zero. Keep extra batteries and keep GPS warm. Does NOT replace map & compass. Take map & compass with you. Always check/set (according to map reference): Position format Map datum North reference

46. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 46 The only way to ….. be comfortable with your GPS … is to practice, (on your sofa) …………..practice, (out for a walk) ………………..practice (in your car) !

47. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 47 So, Don’t forget!

48. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 48 GPS Specific Screens Lets run through the screens for GPSmap60Cx or 76Cx

49. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 49 GPSmap 60Cx / 76Cx The following set of slides is meant to show you the “key” screens and information needed to successfully navigate for SAR purposes. There are many more options and settings.The following set of slides is meant to show you the “key” screens and information needed to successfully navigate for SAR purposes. There are many more options and settings.

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57. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 57 Hands-On! Now let’s put some waypoints into our GPS and see what we can find!

58. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 58 Outdoor Exercises

59. Reference Material

60. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 60 Electronic Maps Mapquest – find latitude/longitude http://www.mapquest.com/maps/main.adp?formtype=latlong&cat=&address=&city=&state=&zipcode= Google Earth: http://earth.google.com/ Map Source: (from Garmin) Topographic maps Metro Guide maps Service NB – NB Atlas: http://www.snb.ca/gdam-igec/e/2900e_1.asp

61. NBGSARA Basic GPS Course 61 Reference Material Two good manuals: http://www.garmin.com/aboutGPS/manual.html GPSGuideforBeginners_Manual.pdf UsingaGarminGPSwithPaperLandMaps_Manual.pdf US Coast Guard service interruptions http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/gps/gpsnotices/default.htm Geocache web site: http://www.geocaching.com/ Topographic map information: http://maps.nrcan.gc.ca/topo101/index_e.php http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/topo/map

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