Shock. Important formulas. Stroke Volume = End dyastolic volume – End systolic volume Cardiac output = Stroke volume x Heart rate Blood pressure = Cardiac output x Systemic Vascular Resitance. Define Shock.
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Stroke Volume = End dyastolic volume – End systolic volume
Cardiac output = Stroke volume x Heart rate
Blood pressure = Cardiac output x Systemic Vascular Resitance
Acute circulatory failure resulting in inadequate or disordered tissue perfusion and insufficient oxygen supply to cells
What is hypovolemic shock?
Shock caused by an insufficient volume of blood
What are the causes of hypovolemic shock?
Major trauma (blood loss), Diarrhoea/Vomiting, massive blood loss during surgery, burns
What are the signs of hypovolemic shock?
Tachycardia, hypotension, thready pulse, oliguria, cold clammy peripheries, Altered GCS
What is cardiogenic shock?
Failure of the heart to pump effectively
What causes cardiogenic shock?
Myocardial infarction, valvular disease, myocarditis, endocarditis
What are the signs of cardiogenic shock?
Pulmonary oedema, increased central venous pressure, murmurs, S3/S4, hypodynamic circulation, oliguria
What is septic shock?
Shock caused by impaired utilisation of oxygen by cells
What are the causes of septic shock?
Hospital admission, diabetes, hospital admission, immunocompromised.
What are the signs of septic shock?
Toxic look – warm and flush, tachycardia and hypotension
What are the causes of Anaphylactic Shock?
What are the signs of anaphylactic shock?
What is mechanical shock?
Obstruction of blood flow outside the heart
What are the causes of obstructive shock?
Tension pneumothorax, Pulmonary embolism, Pericardial tamponade
What are the signs of mechanical shock?
Tachynpnoea, increased CVP, reduced air entry, muffled heart sounds