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Chapter 4. Age of Absolutism. Europe: 1600. Geography:. The period of time during which kings of western Europe had absolute control over their national governments and societies. What is Absolutism?. Divine Right.

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Chapter 4

Age of Absolutism

Europe: 1600


The period of time during which kings of western Europe had absolute control over their national governments and societies.

What is Absolutism?

Divine Right

The theory that stated that kings had a god given right to rule their nations as they wished

Section 1: Extending Spanish Power


Philip II

1. 1519-1556

Son of Charles V

2. Not the warrior king.

2. Centralized power

3.Constant warfare-with France, Protestants and Ottoman Empire.

3. Absolute Monarch

4. Guardian of Catholic Church

5. Wars-Netherlands, Ottomans, & Spanish Armada

4. Grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella

6. Strong Spanish King

5. Religious - Devout


Charles V of SpainSo what does this picture tell you about Chucky?


aka- Not a “G”

Charles V

Philip II of Spain

King Philip had many reasons to want to get rid of Queen Elizabeth:

1. English Privateers attacked Spanish ships.

2. Elizabeth refused to punish privateers and would not return Spanish treasure.

3. Elizabeth was seen as a threat to the Catholic Church.

In 1587, King Philip of Spain saw England as a dangerous nuisance.

Spanish Armada

Or, war with England

Philip II

- Sends 130 ships with 20,000 to invade England.

- Bad weather scattered the armada.

- English ships were faster and lighter.

Heavy Spanish Ships VS Lighter English Ships

Cannonade or Broadside

Cannonade or Broadside

Effects of Spain's Defeat

1. Spain looses her power and prestige in Europe.

2. She is still powerful, but lacks the ability or desire to rebuild a new fleet and take on England

Spanish Art


El Greco “The Greek”- Used vibrant colors to demonstrate religious figures.

  • Spain’s Economic Decline

Defeat of Spanish Armada

Heavy taxes on middle class

Inflation due to gold and silver from the Americas.

Expulsion of Jews & Muslims. (Artisans & Merchants)

Section 2: France Under Louis XIV

The Sun King



  • 1560-1590 Huguenot Wars

  • Religious wars between French Catholics & Protestants.

  • Headed by two nobles families

  • - Catholic Family - Guises

  • - Protestant Family - Bourbons

  • August 24, 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

"Mass slaying of Huguenots (Protestants) in Paris, on St. Bartholomew's Day, August 24, 1572. In order to increase the royal power, the queen mother, Catherine de Medicis, attempted to play the French Roman Catholic faction, led by the house of Guise, against the Huguenot faction, led by the house of Conde.”

Henry IV of France



-Became Catholic to

Keep the Throne

-Edict of Nantes 1598

-Built Royal Bureaucracy

-Assassinated in 1610

Edict of Nantes

Provided Huguenots

1. The right to practice their own religion.

2. The right to maintain standing armies.

3. The right to fortify their cities.

Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII cont…

  • Takes throne at 9 years old, after Father’s assassination

  • Weak ruler as child & teenager as Nobles assert power

  • 1624, appoints Cardinal Richelieu as Chief Minister

  • Gives day to day rule to Richelieu

  • Pampers himself and his court

  • Richelieu rules France

  • Ties King and Church closer

  • Draws Nobles closer to King by position

  • Declares war against Protestants/Huguenots

    • Disarmed

    • Cities fortification removed

    • Allowed to continue beliefs

Cardinal Mazarin

Continues Richelieu

program for the new

King Louis XIV

~ Fronde ~

A Young Louis XIV

is driven from

his Palace by Rioters- Nobles, merchants, peasants Mazarin restores order

“I am the State”- Louis XIV


Establishes a new layer of Government-


*Royal officials recruited from Wealthy Middle Class

*Tax Collectors


*Policy Implementers

-Louis XIV never called the “Estate General” into session

Estates General

French Assembly or Parliament



  • Everything was focused on the IMPORTANCE of Louis XIV

  • Daily Routine became Ceremony – Trumpets and Fanfare

  • Social and Political Systems all Centered on the King

  • 2,000 acres of grounds

  • 12 miles of roads

  • 27 miles of trellises

  • 200,000 trees

  • 210,000 flowers planted every year

  • 80 miles of rows of trees

  • 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal

  • 12 miles of enclosing walls

  • 50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles

  • 21 miles of water conduits

  • 3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed

  • 26 acres of roof

  • 51,210 square meters of floors

  • 2,153 windows

  • 700 rooms

  • 67 staircases

  • 6,000 paintings

  • 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings

  • 2,100 sculptures

  • 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art

  • 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden

Versailles Statistics

Personal Chapel

Pipe Organ

Louis XIV



1. Louis engaged in costly wars that had disastrous results.

Louis greatly strengthened royal power

2. The French army became the strongest in Europe

2. Rival rulers joined forces to check French ambitions.

3. France became the wealthiest state in Europe.

3. Louis persecuted the Huguenots, causing many to flee France. Their departure was a huge blow to the French economy

4. French culture, manners, and customs became the European standard

Section 3: Triumph of Parliament in England

King Henry VIIReigned 1485-1509King Henry VIIIReigned 1509-1547King Edward VIReigned 1547-1553Lady Jane GreyProclaimed queen in 1553Deposed after nine days. Executed in 1554.Queen Mary IReigned 1553-1558Queen Elizabeth I

Reigned 1558-1603

The Tudor Dynasty

  • Throne passes to relatives STUARTsNot popular, nor skilful, in dealingwith Parliament.Insisted on DIVINE RIGHT to rule

Elizabeth Dies without heir to the throne….

What is Parliament?

The Governing Body of England

  • Dissolved Parliament and collected his own Taxes

  • This angered the people and nobles

James I

Charles I

  • Follow fathers lead – Divine rule & Absolute Monarch

  • Imprisons foes with out charges or trial

  • Summons Parliament to raise Taxes,1628

  • Parliament insist he sign Petition of Rights, - He signs

  • Charles I calls Parliament for taxes War with Scotland

  • Parliament refuses until he will sign new Petition of Rights

  • Charles Response by dissolving Parliament.

  • This action launches the English Civil War

1637English Civil War Begins

Charles I Supporter ~> Cavaliers

Parliament Supporters ~>Roundheads


Oliver Cromwell


-Given Command of Parliament’s


-Skilled General and Statesman

-Has Charles Executed

-Rules England as “Lord Protectorate”

After Cromwell’s Death……

  • Charles II (1660-1685) learned the lessons of his predecessors – don’t mess with Parliament

  • James II (1685-1688) was an unpopular king because of his open Catholicism and return to absolute rule.

The Glorious Revolution

  • James II angered his subjects and clashed with Parliament. (Wanted England to be a Catholic Nation)

  • Parliamentary leaders invited William and Mary to become rulers of England.

  • When William and Mary landed in England, James II fled to France.

  • This bloodless overthrow of a king became known as the Glorious Revolution.

William & Mary

Before they could be crowned, William and Mary had to accept the English Bill of Rights, which:

  • Parliament stronger than monarchy.

  • Prohibited a monarch from interfering with Parliament.

  • Restated the rights of English citizens.

  • Created a “Limited Monarchy”

The Bill of Rights in England

11. Video

Section 5: Absolute Monarchy in Russia

Goodbye 1200’s Hello 1600’s!

  • Tortured his victims and beat his own son to death.

  • Thought of himself as the “choosen person” to save his people.

  • Sought to reduce power of the boyars(nobles) who threatened his power.

  • Increased trade, introduced the printing press to Russia, & gained territory.

Ivan IV - the 1st Czar

  • Czar- from the Romanov family

  • Took over when he was 10

  • Grew up exploring the German quarter of Moscow (Capital of Russia)

  • Sought to “westernize”Russia, make Russia as modern as other countries in Europe.

  • Brought back to Russia:

  • 1. Teachers

  • 2. Soldiers

  • 3. Technical Experts

Peter the Great

  • Peter’s goals:

  • -Westernize Russia

  • -Strengthen the military

  • -Expand Russia’s borders

  • -Centralize royal power

  • He did this by forcing the landowning nobles, called boyars into service of the government or the military.

  • He also took control of the Eastern Orthodox Christian Church

Peter the Great- Continued

  • Problem:

  • 1. Needed warm water port for trade.

  • Went to war with Sweden to take land near the Baltic Sea & won a small piece.

  • Peter built his capital, the city of St. Petersburg, on the Baltic Sea, giving him a “gateway to the West.”

Peter the Great- Continued

  • When Peter the Great died, he did not leave an heir to the throne. The Romanov family began to battle for power.

  • Catherine was born in Prussia, but came to Russia to marry Czar Peter III. She learned Russian an converted to Orthodox Christianity.

  • Peter III went crazy, and was assassinated by his own guards… who then made Catherine their leader.

Catherine the Great

  • She embraced Peter the Great’s ideas of westernization and serfdom.

  • She became strong by letting the boyars go without paying taxes and taxing the peasants heavily herself. Many more Russians were forced into serfdom.

  • She defeated the Ottomans to gain control of the Black Sea.

  • In the 1790s she divided up, or partitioned, Poland between Russia, Prussia (Under Frederick the Great) and Austria.

  • By the time they were done, Poland would be gone from the map, not to re-appear as a free Poland until 1919.

Catherine the Great- Continued

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