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Origins of Bullying. Eley et al. (1999) Is antisocial behaviour genetic?. 1500 pairs of British and Swedish twins were studied. Findings: Identical (MZ) twins showed a higher correlation of aggressive antisocial behaviour than fraternal (DZ) twins.

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Eley et al 1999 is antisocial behaviour genetic
Eley et al. (1999) Is antisocial behaviour genetic?

  • 1500 pairs of British and Swedish twins were studied.

  • Findings: Identical (MZ) twins showed a higher correlation of aggressive antisocial behaviour than fraternal (DZ) twins.


Leiu raine 2004 does maln utrition lead to v iolence
Leiu & Raine (2004) Does malnutrition lead to violence?

  • A 14 year study of 1000 children living on the island of Mauritius.

  • At age 3, researchers selected children suffering from malnutrition. A control group who did not suffer from malnutrition were also studied.

  • At age 8, 11, and 17 researchers investigated how the children were behaving in school and at home based on either teacher or parent evaluations.



Dodge 1980 how do bullies think
Dodge (1980) increase in aggressive How do bullies think?

  • Design: Aggressive and non-aggressive boys were given a hypothetical story to read.

  • Each boy imagined that a classmate spilled a lunch tray all over his back.

  • The boys were then asked about the classmate’s intentions and how they would respond if this really happened to them.



Eron 1987 parenting and violence
Eron story 50% more frequently than the others and responded more aggressively. (1987) Parenting and violence

  • Findings: Parents of bullies were found to be often authoritarian-using very strict and often physical methods of punishment.


Totten 2003 parenting and girlfriend abuse
Totten (2003) Parenting and Girlfriend abuse story 50% more frequently than the others and responded more aggressively.

  • 30 abusive adolescent males from a large city in Canada were studied with semi-structured interviews.

  • Mean age of the boys was 15.6 years, 6 belonged to an ethnic minority , and the rest were white.

  • Many were gang members and most had dropped out of school early.


  • Findings: the boys had all been exposed to violent story 50% more frequently than the others and responded more aggressively. behaviour in the family. The fathers all used violence to control family members or to defend their honor.

  • In some cases, the fathers had given them instructions on how to abuse women in particular situations.


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