Mammalian classification
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Mammalian Classification. Class Mammalia. Subclass Prototheria- extinct mammals with unique skull structure Subclass Theria- Living mammals distinguished by skull Infraclass Ornithodelphia- Monotremes Infraclass Metatheria- Marsupials Infraclass Eutheria- Placentals. Order Monotremata.

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Mammalian Classification

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Mammalian classification

Mammalian Classification


Class mammalia

Class Mammalia

  • Subclass Prototheria- extinct mammals with unique skull structure

  • Subclass Theria- Living mammals distinguished by skull

    • Infraclass Ornithodelphia- Monotremes

    • Infraclass Metatheria- Marsupials

    • Infraclass Eutheria- Placentals


Order monotremata

Order Monotremata

  • Oviparous or egg laying mammals

  • Only 3 in existence

  • Duck-billed platypus and two species of spiny anteaters called echidna.

  • Not completely endothermic (their body temperature is lower and fluctuates more than other mammals)

  • Mammae without nipples

  • Edentulous as adults

  • Limbs modified for

    swimming or digging

  • Australia and New Guinea


Duck billed platypus ornithorhynchus anatinus

Duck-Billed PlatypusOrnithorhynchus anatinus

  • Only member of the mammal family Ornithorhynchidae

  • Greek platys meaning broad and pous meaning foot

  • Several reptilian characteristics: same opening for reproduction and eliminating waste products, the ability to lay eggs

  • The world's only venomous furred animal

    • Spur on hind foot

    • Females loose after one year

  • Bill contains an electro-receptor system


Echidna spiny anteater tachyglossus aculeatus

Echidna (Spiny Anteater)Tachyglossus aculeatus

  • "Echidna" derives from the Latin word for "viper”

    • Tongue protrudes like a snake

  • Nocturnal

  • Terrestrial and burrowing

  • Females normally lay only one egg


Monotremata

Monotremata

Duck-billed platypus

Spiny anteater


Infraclass metatheria marsupials

Infraclass Metatheria(Marsupials)

  • Old classification placed all marsupials in a single order

  • More recent classifications have recognized the diversity and radiation of Marsupials

  • Marsupials now separated into seven orders

  • Range, North America, Central America, South America, Australia, New Guinea, adjacent islands


Subclass theria infraclass metatheria marsupialia

Subclass TheriaInfraclass Metatheria (Marsupialia)

Order DidelphimorphiaOpossumsOrder PaucituberculataRat OpossumsOrder MicrobiotheriaMonito del monteOrder DasyuromorphiaThylacines, numbats,

dasyuresOrder PeramelemorphiaBandicootsOrder NotoryctemorphiaMarsupial moleOrder DiprotodontiaKoalas, wombats,

kangaroos, etc


250 species of marsupial species exist in australia new guinea tasmania and the americas

250 species of marsupial species exist in Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania, And the Americas

  • .

Tasmanian Devil


Marsupials

Marsupials

  • Give birth to tiny immature young that crawl to a pouch on the mothers belly immediately after they are born.

    • Marsupium- Fold of skin protecting nipples


Mammalian classification

They attach themselves to milk secreting nipples nursing until they are mature enough to survive outside the pouch.


Syndactyly

Syndactyly


American marsupial

American Marsupial

Order Didelphimorphia- Opossum


Order paucituberculata

Order Paucituberculata

  • Rat Opossums


Order microbiotheria monito del monte

Order Microbiotheria- Monito del Monte


Order dasyuromorphia

Order Dasyuromorphia

  • Thylacine

  • Numbat

Dasyure


Order peramelemorphia bandicoots

Order Peramelemorphia- Bandicoots


Order notoryctemorphia marsupial moles

Order Notoryctemorphia- Marsupial Moles


Order diprotodontia

Order Diprotodontia

Wombats

Kangaroos


Placental mammal s

Placental Mammals


Characteristics of placentals

Characteristics of Placentals

  • 95% of all mammals

  • Carry unborn young in the uterus until young can survive in the wild.

  • Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mother’s blood to baby’s blood


Placental characteristics

Placental Characteristics

  • The placenta is a membrane providing nutrients and waste & gas exchange between the mother and developing young

  • Gestation period-is the time which mammals develop in mother’s uterus


Mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water some mammals can fly

Mammals are a diverse group living on land and in water. Some mammals can fly!

Malaysian Fruit Bat


Order insectivora

Order Insectivora

  • Consists of 400 species

  • Includes shrews and moles

Shrew

Mole


Order insectivora1

Order Insectivora

  • Small animals with high metabolic rate and found in North America, Europe, and Asia.

  • Most have long pointed noses that enable them to grub for insects, worms, and invertebrates.

  • Live on ground, trees, in water, and underground.


Order rodentia

Order Rodentia

  • Largest mammalian order having over 2,400 species.

  • On every continent except for Antarctica

  • Includes squirrels, marmots, chipmunks, gophers, muskrats, mice, rats, and porcupines.

Chipmunk


Mammalian classification

Marmot

Porcupine

Squirrel


Only two incisors in each jaw grow as long as rodent lives and used for gnawing

Only two incisors in each jaw, grow as long as rodent lives, and used for gnawing


Order lagomorpha

Order Lagomorpha

  • Includes rabbits, hares, and small mountain mammals called pikas.

  • Found worldwide

  • Warrens- families of rabbits

Hare

Pika


Rabbits vs hares

Rabbits vs. Hares

  • Rabbits are smaller and slower

  • Shorter ears and hind legs with smaller feet

  • Solid colored fur

  • A young rabbit is a bunny

  • Altricial

  • Hares are generally larger and faster

  • Hares have longer ears, longer hind legs, and larger feet

  • Hares have black markings on their fur

  • A young hare is called a leveret

  • Precocial


Order lagomorpha1

Order Lagomorpha

Double row of incisors, large front teeth backed with two smaller ones, adaptation for herbivorous diet.


Order edentata xenarthra

Order Edentata/Xenarthra

  • Made up of 30 living species including anteaters, armadillos, and sloths.

  • The name edentate means “without teeth”

  • Those with teeth have single root with teeth and no enamel


Mammalian classification

Anteater

Sloths


Mammalian classification

Edentates have adaptations for insectivorous diets, including a long, sticky tongue and clawed front paws

Anteater feeding at a Termite mound


Mammalian classification

Sloths, on the other hand have continuously growing teeth as an adaptation for grinding plants


Chiroptera

Chiroptera

  • Made up of over 900 species of bats

  • Live throughout the world except in polar environments


Mammalian classification

  • A bat’s wing is modified front limb which skin membrane between extremely long finger bones

  • Bats use thumbs for climbing, walking, or grasping


Order chiroptera

Order Chiroptera

  • Most bats are active at night and have a special way to navigate using echolocation (bouncing off high-frequency sound waves)

  • Frequency of returning sound waves with the size, distance, and rate of movement of different objects


Order chiroptera1

Order Chiroptera

  • Bats that use echolocation have small eyes and large ears.

  • Feed on insects and have teeth specialized for such diets


Mammalian classification

  • Some feed on fruit and flower nectar and do not use echolocation.

  • These bats are sometimes called flying foxes, have large eyes and keen sense of smell.


Orders cetacea and sirenia

Orders Cetacea and Sirenia

  • 90 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises are distributed worldwide.

  • Cetaceans have fishlike bodies with forelimbs modified as flippers.


Mammalian classification

  • Cetaceans divided into two groups which are toothed whales and baleen whales.

  • Toothed whales include beaked whales, sperm whales, beluga whales, narwhals, killer whales, dolphins and porpoises.

  • Blue whales largest animal in world ~ 100 tons


Mammalian classification

  • Have over 100 teeth

  • Prey on fish, squid, seals and whales


Mammalian classification

  • Baleen whales lack teeth

  • Baleen-thin plates of finger like material for filtering food from water

  • Shrimp and other small invertebrates are the prey of the baleen whales.


Mammalian classification

The Order Sirenia is made up of four species of manatees and dugongs.


Mammalian classification

  • Front limbs are flippers for swimming

  • Sirenians lack hind legs but have flattened tails.


Order carnivora

Order Carnivora

  • 250 living species in carnivoria are distributed worldwide

  • Most of the species mainly eat meat, which explains the name.

  • About 34 species: Canids, felids, bears, raccoons, minks, sea lions, seals, walruses, and otters


Mammalian classification

  • Some members of this order such as bears feed extensively on plant material as well as meat, so they are called omnivores.

  • Carnivores generally have long canine teeth, strong jaws, clawed toes.

  • Highly developed sense of smell and a large braincase


Suborder pinnipedia

Suborder Pinnipedia

  • Pinnipedia are water dwelling carnivores and have streamlined bodies

  • Sea lions (ear flaps), seals (no ear flaps) and walruses (elongated canines)


Orders artiodactyla and perissodactyla

Orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla

  • Ungulates-hoofed mammals

  • These two classes are herbivores.

    • Mostly grazers/browsers

  • Ruminants- four chambered stomach

  • The first three chambers are for storage (rumen), use cellulase (digestive enzyme) to aid in breakdown of cellulose

    • “Chewing the cud”

      • Regurgitate, chew again, and undergoes double digestion.


Order artiodactyla

Order Artiodactyla

  • Ungulates with an even amount of toes

  • Pigs, hippos, camels, antelope, deer, sheep, giraffes, cattle


Order perissodactyla

Order Perissodactyla

- Ungulates with an odd number of toes

- Horses, rhins, zebras, and tapirs


Order proboscidea

Order Proboscidea

  • Characterized by a boneless nose or proboscis

  • Elephants are the largest land dwellers alive today, weighing more than 6 tons.

    • African (largest land mammal) and Indian/Asian species


It has modified incisors called tusks for digging up roots and stripping bark from branches

It has modified incisors, called tusks, for digging up roots and stripping bark from branches.


Order primates

Order Primates

  • 200 living species of primates classified as prosimians.

  • Including lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, gibbons, and great apes


Mammalian classification

  • Omnivorous diets

  • Unspecialized teeth

  • Grasping digits with free-moving limbs

  • Finger and toenails

  • A complex brain has enabled anthropoids to develop behaviors and to live in highly organized social groups.

    • Ex: Troop- chimpanzee groups


Order primates1

Order Primates


Order primates most intelligent animals

Order Primates Most Intelligent Animals


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