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LING 303. Phonology I vw. Tone. [ ±upper register] For convenience: use H for [+upper register] use L for [–upper register]. Vocal fold vibration. Physical: Fundamental frequency (F0)  rate of vibration of the vocal folds Perceptual: Pitch. fundamental freq. perceived pitch.

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ling 303

LING 303

Phonology I

vw

slide2
Tone
  • [±upper register]
    • For convenience:
      • use H for [+upper register]
      • use L for [–upper register]
vocal fold vibration
Vocal fold vibration

Physical: Fundamental frequency (F0)

rate of vibration of the vocal folds

Perceptual: Pitch

fundamental freq.

perceived pitch

[UCLA Phonetics Lab demo]

dogrib
Dogrib
  • sénǫ̀htsį́į́ díídzę́ k̓é gók̓énédí.
  • ásìì házǫ́ǫ̀ ghá másí néts’ííhwhǫ́
  • góétį́, gókǫ̀, gónék̓é, éyíts’ǫ́
  • ásìì házǫǫ̀ wét’àts’éédàà
  • xį́ ghá
  • hótié kóót’é nį́dè
ibibio
Ibibio
  • akpa ‘expanse of ocean’
  • akpa ‘small ant’
  • akpa ‘first’
  • aku ‘priest’
ibibio1
Ibibio
  • ákp͡á ‘expanse of ocean’
  • àkp͡à ‘small ant’
  • àkp͡á ‘first’
  • ákù ‘priest’
level vs contour
“level” vs. “contour”
  • Level tone: the pitch does not rise or fall very much during the pronunciation of the syllable.
  • Contour tone: the pitch rises and/or falls considerably during the production of the syllable.
falling contour tone
Falling contour tone
  • Tsuut’ina (Sarcee): [tsʰûːt’ínà]
  • Ibibio:
    • ákp͡ân ‘square woven basket’
    • àkp͡ɔ̂ ‘rubber tree’
  • Thai: nâː ‘face’
early studies of tone
Early studies of tone

… used features for contours, e.g.:

  • [±falling]
  • [±rising]
now contour tones
Now, contour tones

… are considered sequences of levels

  • falling: H + L
  • rising: L + H
standard chinese
Standard Chinese
  • má ‘mother’
  • mǎ ‘hemp’
  • mà ‘horse’
  • mâ ‘scold’
standard chinese1
Standard Chinese
  • má ‘mother’ H
  • mǎ ‘hemp’ LH
  • mà ‘horse’ L
  • mâ ‘scold’ HL
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