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LING 303. Phonology I vw. Tone. [ ±upper register] For convenience: use H for [+upper register] use L for [–upper register]. Vocal fold vibration. Physical: Fundamental frequency (F0)  rate of vibration of the vocal folds Perceptual: Pitch. fundamental freq. perceived pitch.

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Ling 303

LING 303

Phonology I

vw


Tone

  • [±upper register]

    • For convenience:

      • use H for [+upper register]

      • use L for [–upper register]


Vocal fold vibration
Vocal fold vibration

Physical: Fundamental frequency (F0)

rate of vibration of the vocal folds

Perceptual: Pitch

fundamental freq.

perceived pitch

[UCLA Phonetics Lab demo]



Tsuut ina calgary1
Tsuut’ina(Calgary)


Dogrib
Dogrib

  • sénǫ̀htsį́į́ díídzę́ k̓é gók̓énédí.

  • ásìì házǫ́ǫ̀ ghá másí néts’ííhwhǫ́

  • góétį́, gókǫ̀, gónék̓é, éyíts’ǫ́

  • ásìì házǫǫ̀ wét’àts’éédàà

  • xį́ ghá

  • hótié kóót’é nį́dè




Ibibio
Ibibio

  • akpa ‘expanse of ocean’

  • akpa ‘small ant’

  • akpa ‘first’

  • aku ‘priest’


Ibibio1
Ibibio

  • ákp͡á ‘expanse of ocean’

  • àkp͡à ‘small ant’

  • àkp͡á ‘first’

  • ákù ‘priest’


Level vs contour
“level” vs. “contour”

  • Level tone: the pitch does not rise or fall very much during the pronunciation of the syllable.

  • Contour tone: the pitch rises and/or falls considerably during the production of the syllable.


Falling contour tone
Falling contour tone

  • Tsuut’ina (Sarcee): [tsʰûːt’ínà]

  • Ibibio:

    • ákp͡ân ‘square woven basket’

    • àkp͡ɔ̂ ‘rubber tree’

  • Thai: nâː ‘face’




Early studies of tone
Early studies of tone

… used features for contours, e.g.:

  • [±falling]

  • [±rising]


Now contour tones
Now, contour tones

… are considered sequences of levels

  • falling: H + L

  • rising: L + H


Standard chinese
Standard Chinese

  • má ‘mother’

  • mǎ ‘hemp’

  • mà ‘horse’

  • mâ ‘scold’


Standard chinese1
Standard Chinese

  • má ‘mother’ H

  • mǎ ‘hemp’ LH

  • mà ‘horse’ L

  • mâ ‘scold’ HL


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