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What is Intelligence. Acting like humans: The Turing test. the Imitation Game. Turing stated that by 2000, there might be a 30% chance of a machine fooling an ordinary person for 5 minutes Suggested that AI will consist of knowledge, reasoning, language understanding and learning.

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slide2

Acting like humans: The Turing test

the Imitation Game

  • Turing stated that by 2000, there might be a 30% chance of a machine fooling an ordinary person for 5 minutes
  • Suggested that AI will consist of knowledge, reasoning, language
  • understanding and learning
thinking like humans cognitive science
Thinking like humans: Cognitive Science
  • Information-processing psychology

Theories related to the internal activities of the human brain

thinking rationally laws of thought
Thinking rationally: Laws of Thought
  • what are correct arguments/thought processes?
  • ancient Greeks developed various forms of logic: notation and rules for thoughts
acting rationally
Acting rationally

What is Rational behavior? doing the right thing

  • What is the right thing: that which is expected to maximize goal achievement, in the light of information available, e.g. crossing the road when there are no evident hazzards- fallingobject
  • May not involve thinking|e.g., blinking reflex|
slide7

Application Areas of AI

  • Game Playing

Deep Blue Chess program beat world champion Gary Kasparov

  • Speech Recognition

PEGASUS spoken language interface to American Airlines\' EASY SABRE reservation system, which allows users to obtain flight information and make reservations over the telephone.

slide8

AI Applications

  • Computer Vision
    • Face recognition programs in use by banks, government, etc.
    • The ALVINN system autonomously drove a van from Washington, D.C. to San Diego (all but 52 of 2,849 miles), averaging 63 mph day and night, and in all weather conditions.
    • Handwriting recognition, electronics and manufacturing inspection, photo-interpretation, baggage inspection, reverse engineering to automatically construct a 3D geometric model.
slide9

Expert Systems

Application-specific systems that rely on obtaining the knowledge of human experts in an area and programming that knowledge into a system.

DENDRAL, mass spectrometer interpreter

MYCIN, modeling medical expert

Microsoft Office Assistant:- customised help to individual user

slide10

Financial Decision Making

Credit card companies, mortgage companies and banks AI systems detect fraud

expedite financial transactions

like credit checks.

profiles of customer usage patterns

use profiles to detect unusual patterns

take appropriate action.

slide11

Mathematical Theorem Proving

Use inference methods to prove new theorems.

  • Natural Language Understanding
    • AltaVista translation of web pages.
    • Translation of Catepillar Truck manuals into 20 languages.
    • (Note: One early system translated the English sentence
    • "The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak" into the Russian equivalent of "The vodka is good but the meat is rotten.")
slide12

Scheduling and Planning

  • Automatic scheduling for manufacturing.
  • American Airlines rerouting contingency planner.
  • European space agency planning and scheduling of spacecraft assembly, integration and verification.
intelligent robotics
Intelligent Robotics
  • Robot Toys
    • Aibo, I-Cybie, LEGO etc
  • Robot Security
    • Cye robot
  • Robot Home Help
    • Lawn mower, Vacuum cleaner etc
things artificially intelligent computers are able to do today
Things Artificially Intelligent Computers Are Able to Do Today
  • Drive a car?
  • Speak?
  • Translate from one natuaral language to another
  • Understand speech?
  • Do housework?
  • Make financial decisions?
slide15

AI "Grand Challenge"

  • Affective systems
  • Translating telephone
  • Adaptive user interfaces
  • Intelligent security systems
  • Accident-avoiding car
  • Home help robot
  • Smart clothes
  • Intelligent agents that monitor and manage information by filtering, digesting, abstracting
  • Intelligent tutors
  • Self-organizing systems, e.g., that learn to assemble something by observing a human do it.
summary
Summary
  • Main points to remember:
  • AI studies the design of systems that {think, act} like {humans, rationally}.
  • Some of the AI successful applications: decision making, expert systems, natural language understanding, image processing.
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