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KINGDOM FUNGI. CHARACTERISTICS of FUNGI. The Kingdom Fungi includes eukaryotic, sessile heterotrophs that include a wide variety of organisms from unicellular yeasts to mushrooms and molds. FUNGAL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION . Except for yeasts, all fungi are multicellular

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Characteristics of fungi
CHARACTERISTICS of FUNGI

  • The Kingdom Fungi includes eukaryotic, sessile heterotrophs that include a wide variety of organisms from unicellular yeasts to mushrooms and molds.


Fungal structure function
FUNGAL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

  • Except for yeasts, all fungi are multicellular

  • Fungi have cell walls made of a carbohydrate substance called chitin(this is the same material that insects are made of!)

  • Multicellular fungi are composed of thin filaments called hyphae, each of which is about one cell thick and has 1-2 nuclei.

  • Many hyphae strung together form a mycelium.



Fungal structure function2
FUNGAL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

  • The mycelium is well-suited to absorb food because it allows a large surface area to come in contact with its food source

  • What we recognize as a mushroom is actually the reproductive structure (fruiting body) of the mycelium that is growing below ground, kind of like the roots of a plant.


Fungal reproduction
FUNGAL REPRODUCTION

  • Most fungi reproduce both sexually or asexually.

  • Asexual reproduction takes place when hyphae break off from the fungus and begin to grow on their own.


Fungal reproduction1
FUNGAL REPRODUCTION

  • Some fungi (like this puffball) produce spores, which can scatter and form new organisms because spores are reproductive cells that are capable of undergoing mitosis.



Fungal reproduction3
FUNGAL REPRODUCTION

  • Sexual reproduction in fungus usually involves the hyphae of two organisms fusing together in the same cell.


Fungal nutrition
FUNGAL NUTRITION

  • Unlike animals, fungi do not ingest their food.

  • Instead they secrete powerful digestive enzymes into their food & digest it outside of their bodies and then absorb it.


Fungal nutrition1
FUNGAL NUTRITION

  • Many fungi are decomposers, which means they feed by absorbing nutrients from decaying matter in the soil.


Fungal nutrition2
FUNGAL NUTRITION

  • Other fungi live as parasites, absorbing nutrients from the bodies of their hosts.


How fungi spread
HOW FUNGI SPREAD

  • Fungal spores are found in almost every environment. This is why molds seem to spring up in any location that has the right combination of moisture and food.


How fungi spread1
HOW FUNGI SPREAD

  • The dry, almost weightless, spores that many fungi produce can scatter easily in the wind.


How fungi spread2
HOW FUNGI SPREAD

  • Other fungi are specialized to lure animals, which they use to disperse their spores over large distances.

  • The stinkhorn is a fungus that smells like rotting meat, which attracts flies, who eat a sticky fluid substance found on the fungus and distribute fungal spores in their excrement.


Divisions of kingdom fungi
DIVISIONS of KINGDOM FUNGI

  • Kingdom Fungi is divided into 4 major divisions (phyla).

  • The divisions are based on the structures that the fungi in each phylum uses for reproduction.


Divisions of kingdom fungi1
DIVISIONS of KINGDOM FUNGI

  • The 4 phyla of Kingdom Fungi:

    • Zygomycota

    • Ascomycota

    • Basidiomycota

    • Deuteromycota


Zygomycota
ZYGOMYCOTA

  • Common molds

  • Ex. bread mold

  • Use zygospores to reproduce

    Black bread mold


Ascomycota
ASCOMYCOTA

  • Sac fungi

  • Ex. truffles, yeasts, cup fungi

  • Use ascus for reproduction

  • Can cause Ergot poisoning (humans) and chestnut blight (trees)


Basidiomycota
BASIDIOMYCOTA

  • Club fungi

  • Ex. Mushrooms, puffballs & rusts

  • Use basidia for reproduction

  • Some are harmful & parasitic and destroy crops.


Deuteromycota
DEUTEROMYCOTA

  • Imperfect fungi

  • Ex. Penicillium

  • Have never been observed undergoing sexual reproduction


Fungi as decomposers
FUNGI AS DECOMPOSERS

  • Fungi play an essential role in maintaining equilibrium in nearly every ecosystem, where they recycle nutrients by breaking down the bodies of wastes and other organisms.


Fungi as decomposers1
FUNGI AS DECOMPOSERS

  • Without decomposition, the energy-rich compounds that living things acquire while they are alive would never be recycled into the Earth.

  • If these important minerals were not recycled back into the Earth, our soil would become depleted and the Earth would become lifeless and barren.


Fungal plant diseases
FUNGAL PLANT DISEASES

  • WHEAT RUST: Caused by a club fungus that infects wheat crops


Fungal plant diseases1
FUNGAL PLANT DISEASES

  • CORN SMUT: Fungus that destroys corn crops


Human fungal diseases
HUMAN FUNGAL DISEASES

  • ATHLETE’S FOOT & JOCK ITCH: Caused by an imperfect fungi that makes an inflamed sore from which the spores spread easily from person to person


Human fungal diseases1
HUMAN FUNGAL DISEASES

  • RING WORM: Same fungus that causes Athlete’s foot


Human fungal diseases2
HUMAN FUNGAL DISEASES

  • YEAST INFECTION: Grows in moist regions of the body


Human fungal diseases3
HUMAN FUNGAL DISEASES

  • THRUSH: A painful fungal infection of the mouth


Animal fungal diseases
ANIMAL FUNGAL DISEASES

  • Cordyceps: A fungus that infects insects & ingests their body tissues until the insect dies, then they feed off the dead matter.


Fungal associations
FUNGAL ASSOCIATIONS

  • Fungi form symbiotic relationships with other organisms.

  • A symbiotic relationship is one in which organisms live closely together and usually benefit from their association.

  • For example: Lichens & mycorrhizae


Fungal associations1
FUNGAL ASSOCIATIONS

  • Lichens are a mutualistic relationship between a fungus & algae.

  • They benefit each other because the algae is photosynthetic and provide the fungus with a source of energy and the fungus, in turn, provides the algae with water and minerals.


Fungal associations2
FUNGAL ASSOCIATIONS

  • Mycorrhizae are a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and plant roots.

  • The hyphae of the fungus help plants absorb water and minerals, while the roots provide an energy source via photosynthesis.


The end
THE END

THERE’S A FUNGUS AMONG US!


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