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Assessment of Big Ideas in Beginning Reading. DIBELS Benchmark Assessment. Roland H. Good III Ruth Kaminski Ambre ReMillard Carrie Ebmeyer David VanLoo. University of Oregon College of Education. dibels.uoregon.edu. What are DIBELS?. D ynamic I ndicators B asic E arly L iteracy S kills.

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DIBELS Benchmark Assessment

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Dibels benchmark assessment

Assessment of Big Ideas in Beginning Reading

DIBELS Benchmark Assessment

Roland H. Good IIIRuth KaminskiAmbre ReMillardCarrie EbmeyerDavid VanLoo

University of Oregon College of Education

dibels.uoregon.edu


What are dibels

What are DIBELS?

Dynamic

Indicators

Basic

Early

Literacy

Skills

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels benchmark assessment

The dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills are:

  • a set of standardized, individually

    administered measures of early literacy

    development.

  • They are designed to be short (oneminute) fluency measures used to regularly monitor the development of pre-reading and early reading skills.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Remember dibels are indicators

Remember, DIBELS are indicators

  • DIBELS is a toothpick.

  • DIBELS are not designed to provide an exhaustive assessment.

  • DIBELS provides an efficient indicator of essential literacy skills acquisition like a toothpick provides an efficient way to tell if the cake is baked.

  • If the toothpick has dough on it, what should we do?

Early Childhood Research Institute


Four kinds of reading assessments

Four Kinds of Reading Assessments

An effective, comprehensive, reading program includes reading assessments to accomplish four purposes:

  • Outcome- Assessments that provide a bottom-line evaluation of the effectiveness of the reading program.

  • Screening - Assessments that are administered to determine which children are at risk for reading difficulty and who will need additional intervention.

  • Diagnosis - Assessments that help teachers plan instruction by providing in-depth information about students’ skills and instructional needs.

  • Progress Monitoring- Assessments that determine if students are making adequate progress or need more intervention to achieve grade level reading outcomes.

Early Childhood Research Institute


The five big ideas

The Five Big Ideas

  • Phonemic Awareness

  • Alphabetic Principle

  • Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text

  • Comprehension

  • Vocabulary/Language

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels benchmark assessment

Phonemic Awareness

  • The awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our language.

  • Understanding that spoken words are made up of sequences of individual speech sounds: “cat” is composed of the sounds /k/ /a/ /t/ .

Early Childhood Research Institute


Phonological awareness

Phonological Awareness

What is it?

  • Phonological Awareness is Explicit awareness of the sound structure of language. The awareness of and ability to manipulate the sound units smaller than words.

    What is it not?

  • Note: Phonological Awareness is not the same as phonics - no letter-sound correspondence is involved. It may be an essential skill for phonics instruction to make sense, however.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Examples of phonological awareness

Examples of Phonological Awareness

  • Rhyming -- What word rhymes with 'cat'? 'bat'

  • Syllable splitting -- The onset of 'cat' is /k/, the rime is /at/

  • Oddity -- What word doesn't belong with the others: 'cat' 'mat' 'bat' 'ran'? 'ran'

  • Phoneme Blending -- What word is /k/ /a/ /t/? 'cat'

  • Phoneme segmentation -- What are the sounds in cat? /k/ /a/ /t/

  • Phoneme deletion -- What is 'cat' without the /k/? 'at'

  • Phoneme manipulation -- What would 'cat' be if you changed the /t/ to /n/? 'can'

Early Childhood Research Institute


Alphabetic principle

Alphabetic Principle

Teaching the alphabetic principle skill builds better readers.

  • Teach letter-sounds.

  • Teach a decoding strategy: left to right, say it slowly sound by sound, say it fast, say the word.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Alphabetic principle1

Alphabetic Principle

What is it?

  • Alphabetic Principle is explicit awareness of the letter-sound structure of written language.

    • Alphabetic Understanding. Words are composed of letters that represent sounds, and

    • Phonological Recoding. Using systematic relationships between letters and phonemes (letter-sound correspondence) to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell.

      What is it not?

  • Knowing letter names.

  • Drilling endless phonics rules with low utility. (in isolation)

  • Signing ABC song

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels benchmark assessment

Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text

  • Automaticity with fundamental skills so that reading occurs quickly and effortlessly

    (driving a car, playing a musical instrument, playing a sport)

Early Childhood Research Institute


Automaticity with the code

Automaticity with the Code

  • What is it?

    • The ability to quickly and accurately apply letter-sound correspondence to reading connected text. Automaticity provides an overall indicator of student growth and development in early reading skills.

  • What it is not?

    • Oral reading fluency will not tell you everything you need to know about student reading performance. However, there is a strong relationship between oral reading fluency and comprehension.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Comprehension

Comprehension

  • The process of getting meaning from spoken language and/or print.

  • The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to convey meaning.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Vocabulary language

Vocabulary/Language

  • Understanding and use of words

    • Ability to say a specific word for a particular meaning

    • Ability to understand spoken/written words

Early Childhood Research Institute


Big ideas drive the train

Big Ideas Drive the Train

  • Big ideas of early literacy should drive the curriculum and instruction. And,

  • Big ideas should drive the measures we use.

Early Childhood Research Institute


What makes a big idea a big idea

What Makes a Big Idea a Big Idea?

  • An Big Idea is:

    • Predictive of reading acquisition and later reading achievement.

    • Something we can do something about, i.e., something we can teach.

    • Something that improves outcomes for children if/when we teach it.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels assessments

DIBELS Assessments

  • Initial Sound Fluency (ISF)

  • Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)

  • Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)

  • Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)

  • Word Use Fluency (WUF)

  • Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

  • Retell Fluency (RTF)

Early Childhood Research Institute


Initial sound fluency

Initial Sound Fluency

This is a mouse, flowers, pillow, letters (point to each picture while saying its name).

Mouse begins with the sound /m/ (point to the mouse). Listen: /m/, mouse. Which one begins with the sounds /fl/?

  • ISF Target Age Range

  • Initial Sound Fluency works well for most 4-year-old children through the middle of kindergarten. It may beappropriate for monitoring the progress of older children with low phonological awareness skills. The benchmark goal is 25 to 35 in the middle of kindergarten. Below 10 in the middle of kindergarten is indicates need for intensive instructional support.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Initial sound fluency isf

Initial Sound Fluency (ISF)

Early Childhood Research Institute


Scoring

Scoring

60x13

38 seconds=20.5

Early Childhood Research Institute


Initial sound fluency isf1

Initial Sound Fluency (ISF)

  • Big Idea: -Phonemic Awareness

  • Benchmark -25 middle of K

    Goal: 8 beginning of K

  • Assessment -Preschool

    Times: - Kindergarten

    fall, winter

Early Childhood Research Institute


Phoneme segmentation fluency

Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

I am going to say a word. After I say it, you tell me all the sounds in the word. So, if I say, “Sam,” you would say /s/ /a/ /m/. Let’s try one. (one second pause). Tell me the sounds in “mop”

Ok. Here is your first word.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Phoneme segmentation fluency psf

Phoneme Segmentation FluencyPSF

Early Childhood Research Institute


Phoneme segmentation fluency psf1

Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)

  • Big Idea:-Phonemic Awareness

  • Benchmark -35 end of K

    Goal:

  • Assessment -Kindergarten:

    Times: winter, spring

    -First Grade:

    fall, winter, spring

Early Childhood Research Institute


Letter naming fluency lnf

Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)

When I say 'start' begin here (point to first letter in upper left hand corner), go across the page (point), and tell me as many letters as you can. Try to name each letter. If you come to a letter you don't know I'll tell it to you. Put your finger on the first letter. Ready, begin.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Letter naming fluency lnf1

Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)

Early Childhood Research Institute


Letter naming fluency lnf2

Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)

  • Big Idea: -NONE

  • Benchmark -No Benchmark

    Goal: Use local norms

  • Assessment -Kindergarten:

    Times: fall, winter, spring

    -First Grade:

    fall

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels benchmark assessment

LNF

Letter names are closely related to the letter-sound relationships, and knowing the letter names helps children associate sound with many of the letters. It seems obvious that children who can easily recall letter names instantly on sight, to an extent that we might say is “automatic”, can easily form an association between a symbol and its name. Letter naming knowledge has long been recognized as a potent predictor of later reading ability. Some studies suggests that although letter naming predicts, the ability to read later on, it does not cause a child to learn more readily.

There is a “bi-directional” relationship between letter-name and phoneme awareness, where knowledge of one enhances knowledge of the other

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels nonsense word fluency

DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency

Here are some make-believe words(point to the student probe).Start here(point to the first word)and go across the page(point across the page).When I say, “begin”, read the words the best you can. Point to each letter and tell me the sound or read the whole word. Read the words the best you can. Put your finger on the first word. Ready, begin.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Nonsense word fluency nwf

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)

Early Childhood Research Institute


Nonsense word fluency nwf1

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)

  • Big Idea: -Alphabetic Principle

  • Benchmark -50 by middle 1st grade

    Goal: 13 by middle K

    25 by end of K/begin of 1st

  • Assessment -Kindergarten:

    Times: winter, spring

    -First Grade:

    fall, winter, spring

    -Second Grade

    fall

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels tm word use fluency wuf

Word Use Fluency (WUF) is intended for most children from fall of kindergarten through third grade. A benchmark goal is not provided for WUF because additional research is needed to establish its linkage to other big ideas of early literacy (phonological awareness, alphabetic principle, and accuracy and fluency with connected text).

DIBELSTM Word Use Fluency (WUF)

Early Childhood Research Institute


Word use fluency

Word Use Fluency

Early Childhood Research Institute


Word use fluency wuf

Word Use Fluency(WUF)

Early Childhood Research Institute


Word use fluency wuf1

Word Use Fluency (WUF)

  • Big Idea: -Oral Language/Vocabulary

  • Benchmark -No Goal

    Goal:Use local norms

  • Assessment -Kindergarten-Third Grade

    Times: fall, winter, spring

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels oral reading fluency

DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency

Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading. When I say, “stop” I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading. Start here (point to the first word of the passage). Begin.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Oral reading fluency orf

Oral Reading Fluency(ORF)

Early Childhood Research Institute


Oral reading fluency orf1

Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)

  • Big Idea: -Accuracy and Fluency

    Connected text

  • Benchmark -40 end of 1st Grade

    Goal: -90 end of 2nd Grade

    -110 end of 3rd Grade

    -118 end of 4th Grade

    -124 end of 5th Grade

    -125 end of 6th Grade

  • Assessment -First Grade:

    Times: winter, spring

    -Second-Sixth Grade:

    fall, winter, spring

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels retell fluency

DIBELS Retell Fluency

Please tell me all about what you just read. Try to tell me everything you can. Begin. Start your stopwatch after you say“begin”.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Retell fluency rtf

Retell Fluency(RTF)

Early Childhood Research Institute


Retell fluency rtf1

Retell Fluency (RTF)

  • Big Idea: -Comprehension

  • Benchmark -25% or greater of number of

    Goal: words read

  • Assessment -First Grade:

    Times:winter, spring

    -Second-Third Grade:

    fall, winter, spring

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels steppingstones to literacy

Reading

Difficulty

and Failure

Reading

and

Literacy

DIBELS Steppingstones to Literacy

Oral Reading

Fluency

Alphabetic

Principle

Phonological

Awareness

InitialSounds

In words

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels benchmark assessment

Progress Monitoring

Early Childhood Research Institute


Exploring support what aimline

Exploring Support - What Aimline?

The aimline connects where you are to where you want to get to, and shows the course to follow to get there.

Aimline

Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

Early Childhood Research Institute


Evaluating support modify instruction

Evaluating Support – Modify Instruction?

Whoops! Time to make a change!

Aimline

Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

Early Childhood Research Institute


Evaluating support is instructional support sufficient now

Evaluating Support - Is Instructional Support Sufficient Now?

Aimline

Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

Early Childhood Research Institute


Dibels benchmark assessment

  • Poor readers at the end of first grade are at very significant risk for long term academic difficulty.

    “The probability of remaining a poor reader at the end of fourth grade, given a child was a poor reader at the end of first grade, was .88 .... the probability of remaining an average reader in fourth grade, given an average reading ability in first grade, was .87.” (Juel, 1988)

  • Poor readers at the end of first grade are likely to require intensive instructional support to reach third grade reading outcomes.

Early Childhood Research Institute


Three levels tiers of support

Three Levels (Tiers) of Support

Core Curriculum

80% of students

All Students

__________________

Supplemental

Support

15% of students

_______________________

Intensive

Support

5%

Early Childhood Research Institute


Core program

Core Program

  • Daily instruction focused on 5 Big Ideas with whole class/small groups

    • Meets the needs of 80% of the students

    • Support all benchmark students to make adequate progress and achieve the benchmark goal

      Purpose: To provide additional instruction in one or more areas of reading

Early Childhood Research Institute


Supplemental program strategic

Supplemental Program(Strategic)

  • Additional small group (3-5) instruction with explicit focus on target skills

    • Meet the need of students who need more support than the core program can provide.

    • Support all strategic students to achieve the benchmark goal.

      Purpose: To provide additional instruction in one or more areas of reading.

      • Phonemic awareness programs

      • Fluency building programs

      • Comprehension strategy programs

Early Childhood Research Institute


Intervention support intensive

Intervention Support(Intensive)

  • Additional, more intensive small group (1-3) intervention with systematic, explicit instruction focused on target skills.

    • Meet the needs of the students in the school who need very intensive intervention.

    • Support all intensive students to reduce their risk or reading difficulty

      Purpose: To provide additional instruction to students who need intensive support.

      • Reading Mastery,

      • Early Reading Intervention

      • Phonological Awareness Training for Reading

Early Childhood Research Institute


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