Stop rules for worrying checking a metacognitive factor in perseverative psychopathologies
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Stop Rules for Worrying & Checking: A Metacognitive Factor in Perseverative Psychopathologies. Graham Davey University of Sussex, UK. Collaborators. Benie MacDonald Helen Startup Gary Britton Suzanne Dash Frances Meeten Fergal Jones. Introduction.

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Stop rules for worrying checking a metacognitive factor in perseverative psychopathologies

Stop Rules for Worrying & Checking: A Metacognitive Factor in Perseverative Psychopathologies

Graham Davey

University of Sussex, UK

Collaborators in Perseverative Psychopathologies

Benie MacDonald

Helen Startup

Gary Britton

Suzanne Dash

Frances Meeten

Fergal Jones

Introduction in Perseverative Psychopathologies

  • Perseveration is a defining element of many psychopathologies

  • Examples include worrying (GAD), checking (OCD), rumination (in major depression)

  • Perseverative activities are usually ‘neutralizing’ activities

  • Linked to meta-cognitive and global beliefs about how to deal with distressing emotions

What are stop rules
What are ‘stop rules’? in Perseverative Psychopathologies

Relate to Task Motivation

Performance Focused OR Task Focused

‘Enough’ OR ‘Enjoy’

‘As Many as Can’ (AMA) OR ‘Feel Like Continuing’ (FL)

What do we know about stop rules
What do we know about stop rules? in Perseverative Psychopathologies

  • Often not easily verbalizable

  • Can often be derived from dispositional characteristics or meta-beliefs about emotional control strategies

  • Stop rule type is linked to mood

  • Stop rules interact with mood to determine perseveration at a task (the ‘Mood-as-Input Hypothesis’, Davey, 2006, Startup & Davey, 2001).

Stop rule x mood interaction effects
Stop Rule x Mood Interaction Effects in Perseverative Psychopathologies

  • Hawksley & Davey (2010)

  • Depressive Rumination Task

  • Participants asked to iterate what had made them feel depressed during a recent episode of depression

  • Both mood (positive v negative) and stop rule (AMA v FL) were manipulated

Hawksley davey 2010
Hawksley in Perseverative Psychopathologies & Davey (2010)

Perseverative worrying
Perseverative Worrying in Perseverative Psychopathologies

Manipulating Stop Rule (Startup & Davey, 2001)

Stop Rules & Responsibility (Startup & Davey, 2003)

Stop Rule deployment in High & Low Worriers (Davey et al., 2005)

Do stop rules change during a worry bout? (Davey et al., 2007)

The catastrophizing interview
The Catastrophizing Interview in Perseverative Psychopathologies

  • I’m worried about not being able to move

  • That I would be attacked in some way

  • That I would not be able to fight back

  • That I would not be able to control what other people did to me

  • That I would feel inadequate

  • That other people would begin to think I was inadequate

  • That in my relationship with those people I would not be respected

  • That I would not have any influence over others

  • That other people would not listen to me

  • That it would cause a loss of self-esteem

  • That this loss of self-esteem would have a negative effect on my relationships with others

  • That I would lose friends

  • That I would be alone

  • That I would have no-one to talk to

  • Because it would mean that I would not be able to share any thoughts/problems with other people

  • That I would not get advice from others

  • That none of my problems would be adequately sorted out

  • That they would remain and get worse

  • That eventually I would not be able to cope with them

  • That eventually my problems would have more control over me than I had over them

  • That they would prevent me from doing other things

  • That I would be unable to meet new people and make friends

  • That I would be lonely

Manipulating stop rules in high low worriers
Manipulating Stop Rules in High & Low Worriers in Perseverative Psychopathologies

Worry stop rule check list
Worry Stop Rule Check List in Perseverative Psychopathologies

AMA – ‘Enough’

FL – ‘Enjoy’

I must find a solution to this problem, so keep thinking about it.

I must try and think about the worst possible outcome, just in case it happens

I must think everything through properly

What’s done is done, so what’s the point in worrying?

I don’t have time to think about this now

Stop worrying, things always work out for the best.

Davey startup macdonald jenkins patterson 2005
Davey, Startup, MacDonald, Jenkins & Patterson (2005) in Perseverative Psychopathologies

What ends a worry bout mood changes during worrying
What ends a worry bout? in Perseverative Psychopathologies- Mood changes during worrying

Changes in stop rule endorsement
Changes in Stop Rule Endorsement in Perseverative Psychopathologies

Perseverative checking
Perseverative Checking in Perseverative Psychopathologies

Compulsive checkers deploy AMA stop rules (Meyer, Fisher & Wells, 2009)

Termination of rituals often based on subjective stop criteria

Explanatory constructs such as ‘Inflated Responsibility’ interact with mood (MacDonald & Davey, 2005)

It is the goal-directed nature of checking that causes perseveration, not its complexity

Macdonald davey 2005
MacDonald & Davey (2005) in Perseverative Psychopathologies

Black = High Responsibility

White = Low Responsibility

Stop rule is not independent of mood
Stop Rule is not Independent of Mood in Perseverative Psychopathologies

Negative mood facilitates endorsement of AMA checking stop rules (Gary Britton)

Negative mood facilitates endorsement of AMA worry stop rules (Suzanne Dash)

Britton davey 2011 mood checking stop rules
Britton & Davey (2011) in Perseverative PsychopathologiesMood & Checking Stop Rules

Dash davey 2011 mood worrying stop rules
Dash & Davey (2011) in Perseverative PsychopathologiesMood & Worrying Stop Rules

Dash & Davey (2011) in Perseverative PsychopathologiesSystematic Processing & AMA deployment mediate effect of Negative Mood on Worry Scores

Summary in Perseverative Psychopathologies

  • AMA Stop Rules + Negative Mood = Perseveration

  • Perseveration is not a Dispositional Style

  • Perseveration is a Performance Factor caused by a configuration of stop rule and mood

  • Deployment of AMA stop rules is facilitated by Negative Mood

Future directions
Future Directions in Perseverative Psychopathologies

  • More Research on Stop Rules in Clinical Populations

  • Characteristics of Clinical Populations Facilitate Mood-as-Input Processes

  • Mood-as-Input as a Mechanism for Acquisition of Perseverative Activities

  • Mood-as-Input as a Transdiagnostic Process

  • Mood & Stop Rule Awareness Interventions