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In Service Training University of Florida IFAS March 12, 2013. Whiteflies . IST Organizers. Catharine Mannion , Tropical Research and Education Center Lance Osborne , Mid-Florida Research and Education Center William Schall , Palm Beach County Extension

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In Service Training

University of Florida IFAS

March 12, 2013

Whiteflies


IST Organizers

  • Catharine Mannion, Tropical Research and Education Center

  • Lance Osborne, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center

  • William Schall, Palm Beach County Extension

  • Eileen Buss, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology


Whiteflies

  • Whiteflies are NOTflies

  • Piercing-sucking mouthparts – both adults and nymphs feed

  • Excrete honeydew

  • Some species transmit viruses

  • Some species produce waxy substances

  • Host range – single to multiple hosts


Adult Whiteflies

  • Small, white, “moth-like” in appearance

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Whitefly Nymphs

  • More variable in appearance than adults

  • Resemble “scale insects”

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Whitefly Introductions

2007 - Ficus Whitefly

2009 – Rugose Spiraling Whitefly

2011 – Bondar’s

Nesting Whitefly

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Ficus WhiteflySinghiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

  • Only feeds on ficus species

  • Introduced in 2007

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS

Photo: A. Roda, USDA APHIS


Ficus Whitefly - Damage

  • Causes leaf yellowing

  • Leaf drop (severe)

  • Branch dieback (highly variable)

Photo: H. Glenn, and C. Mannion, UF/IFAS


Ficus WhiteflyLife Cycle

Adult Whitefly

(2-4 days)

Eggs

(10 days)

Constant temperature (80º F)

*2nd

4th instar – puparia

(5.8 days)

1st instar – crawler

(4.2 days)

*3rd

2nd-3rd instars – nymphs

2nd instar – 3.7 days; 3rd instar – 3. 3 days

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Ficus Whitefly Immature Stages

  • The immature stages (typically found on the underside of leaves) tend to be flat, oval and can vary in color or transparent

  • The pupal case is often one of the most visible stages

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Natural Enemies Observed in the Landscape

Encarsia protransvena

Amitus bennetti

Harmonia axyridis

Olla v-nigrum

Exochomus childreni

Chilocorus nigritis

Curinus coeruleus

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Effect of Temperature on Length of Life Cycle of Ficus Whitefly


2009

2010

Mean Number Live Adults per Sticky Trap

2011

2012

2013


Current SituationFicus Whitefly

  • Spreading and increasing in other areas (moving North) but will be limited by its host plant (ficus)

  • Numerous natural enemies established

  • Nuisance “factor”

    • Loss of aesthetics and privacy (ficus)

    • Overall hysteria – leads to bad decisions

  • Heavy reliance on systemic insecticides

  • “Ficus” decline

  • Whitefly populations are decreasing in some initial areas


Continued Ficus Decline

Whiteflies Present

  • Insecticide Resistance

  • Viruses/bacteria/toxins

  • Low use rates

  • Drought or other environmental conditions

Whiteflies Not Present

  • Cumulative stress

  • Nutrition

  • Disease

    • Phomopsis and Diaporthe – cause branch dieback under stress conditions


Rugose Spiraling Whitefly

Gumbo Limbo Spiraling WhiteflyAleurodicus rugioperculatus

  • First found in Miami on gumbo limbo, Bursera simaruba,Spring 2009

  • Known in Belize, Mexico and Guatemala

  • Adult is relatively large and docile

  • Produces excessive honeydew and wax

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


White, waxy substance

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Honeydew and sooty mold

Photos: H. Glenn and C. Mannion UF/IFAS


Honeydew and sooty mold

Photos: K. Gabel, Monroe County Extension and C. Mannion and UF/IFAS


Eggs

Rugose

Spiraling

Whitefly

1st Instar

Adult

2nd Instar

4th Instar

3rd Instar

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Rugose Spiraling WhiteflySpiraling Eggs

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Host Plants for Rugose Spiraling Whitefly

  • At least 90 different host species (34 plant families)

  • 60% of samples sent for ID are from 9 host plants

    • Gumbo limbo (17%)

    • Coconut (10%)

    • Calophyllum spp. (10%)

    • Avocado (9%)

    • Black olive (5%)

    • Pigmy date palm (3%)

    • Bird of Paradise(2%)

    • Christmas palm (2%)

    • Mango (2%)


Effect of Temperature on the Life Cycle of the Rugose Spiraling Whitefly


Parasitoids Identified

  • Encarsia guadaloupae

  • Encarsia noyesii

  • Aleuroctonus sp.

Predator Identified

  • Nephaspis oculata

  • Well established in Florida for > 25 years


Current SituationGumbo Limbo Spiraling Whitefly

  • Whitefly populations are increasing and spreading

  • A couple of natural enemies established

    • Ongoing efforts for new natural enemies and release systems

  • Nuisance “factor”

    • Loss of aesthetics – “messy” situation

    • Affecting pools, ponds etc.

    • Tree removal

    • Overall hysteria – leads to bad decisions

  • Heavy reliance on systemic insecticides


Bondar’s Nesting WhiteflyParaleyrodes bondari

  • First detected in Dec 2011

  • Three other species known in Florida

  • Not known as economic pest

  • Often seen with Rugose spiraling whitefly

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly

  • White wax

  • Honeydew

  • Sooty mold


Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly

Nymphs

Whitefly “nest”

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Not whitefly

Powdery Mildew

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Natural Enemies

  • Wasp parasitoid, Encarsia variegata

  • Beetle predator, Nephaspis oculata

Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS


Current Situation

  • Impact of this whitefly is unknown

  • Commonly found on ficus

  • Often found in association with other whiteflies (i.e. particularly Rugose spiraling whitefly)

  • Some natural enemies identified

  • Nuisance “factor”

    • Typically not as messy as Rugose spiraling whitefly

  • Heavy reliance on systemic insecticides


QUESTIONS


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