Technology in architecture
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Technology in Architecture. Lecture 10 Mechanical Systems. Mechanical Systems. Mechanical Systems. Organize the Information Rank the energy use Design the building envelope/ Define the thermal zones Verify code compliance Define the HVAC system requirements Select the system(s)

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Technology in architecture

Technology in Architecture

Lecture 10

Mechanical Systems


Mechanical systems

Mechanical Systems


Mechanical systems1

Mechanical Systems

Organize the Information

  • Rank the energy use

  • Design the building envelope/Define the thermal zones

  • Verify code compliance

  • Define the HVAC system requirements

  • Select the system(s)

  • Locate primary equipment

  • Locate secondary equipment

  • Locate distribution outlets

  • Locate distribution paths

Architect

Engineer

Architect/Engineer/Other Trades


Ranking the energy use

Ranking the Energy Use

Verify daylight/sunshine availability

Verify costs of energy

Verify programmatic uses of energy (HVAC, Lighting, DHW, Process)

Verify cost incentive opportunities


Design the building envelope

Design the Building Envelope

Evaluate passive thermal opportunities

Confirm material availability

Define tectonics

Select fenestration and shading systems

Jewett Art Center, Paul Rudolph


Design the thermal zones

Design the Thermal Zones

Recognize passive solar opportunities and constraints


Design the thermal zones1

Design the Thermal Zones

Organize program to recognize

  • Function

  • Schedule

  • Orientation

  • Building Form

  • Building Envelope

  • Support Systems


Thermal zones functions

Thermal Zones—Functions

Organize program to recognize:

  • Space usage and occupancy needs

  • Temperature/humidity requirements

  • Thermal inter-relationships


Thermal zones schedule

Thermal Zones—Schedule

Organize program to accommodate diverse schedules

  • Time of day for compatible uses

  • Interaction/noninteraction of uses


Thermal zones orientation

Thermal Zones — Orientation

Organize program to use orientation to enhance opportunities for:

  • Direct sun

  • Daylight

  • Microclimates

Banff Aquatic Center, Alberta, CN


Thermal zones building form

Thermal Zones — Building Form

Organize program to reflect building form

  • Load dominance

  • Self-shading

Price Tower, Frank Lloyd Wright


Thermal zones building envelope

Thermal Zones — Building Envelope

Organize program to recognize opportunities for:

  • Single skin

  • Double skin


Thermal zones support systems

Thermal Zones—Support Systems

Organize program to recognize support systems effects:

  • Centralized vs. decentralized

  • Distribution paths

  • Raised floor/ceiling plenum

  • Controls

S: p. 433, F.10.48


Support systems controls

Support Systems — Controls

Control systems:

  • Thermostats

  • Building automation systems


Controls thermostats

Controls — Thermostats

Thermostats:

  • Do not locate on exterior wall

  • Do not locate in direct sun

  • Do not locate in direct path of HVAC discharge

  • Do not include portions of separate rooms

  • Locate in the zone it controls

  • Locate in return air ducts


Controls automated

Controls—Automated

Building automation systems

  • User access to override features

  • Centralized control station vs individual control

S: p. 430, F.10.45


Verify code compliance

Verify Code Compliance

ASHRAE 90.1—Energy Code for Nonresidential Buildings

ASHRAE 90.2—Energy Code for Residential Buildings

ASHRAE 62-2001—Ventilation Code


Define hvac system requirements

Define HVAC System Requirements

Space conditions for temperature & humidity

Condition ranges & tolerances

Summer & Winter design conditions


Select systems

Select Systems

Based on:

  • Performance capabilities

  • Space psychrometric criteria

  • Construction cost

  • Operating Cost

Solar Heliostats

Solar Power(ful)


Locate primary equipment

Locate Primary Equipment

Primary equipment uses raw energy to generate heating and cooling media (chilled water, hot water, or steam)

  • Boilers

  • Chillers

  • Cooling Towers

  • Accessory equipment (pumps, tanks, etc)

  • Thermal storage systems


Locate primary equipment1

Locate Primary Equipment

Location factors

  • Service access at grade or below grade with truck dock

  • Size/Volume

  • Noise

  • Fire safety

  • Security

  • Future expansion of mechanical plant

LNCO Mechanical Room (during construction)


Locate primary equipment2

Locate Primary Equipment

Location factors

  • Service access at grade or below grade with truck dock

  • Size/Volume

  • Noise

  • Fire safety

  • Security

  • Future expansion of mechanical plant

S: p. 380, F.10.2a


Locate secondary equipment

Locate Secondary Equipment

Secondary equipment uses generated media to distribute conditioned air or water to individual thermal zones

  • Air handling units (with coils)

  • Heat exchangers

  • Accessory equipment

Marriott Library Fan Room


Locate secondary equipment1

Locate Secondary Equipment

Location factors

  • Adjacent to/within zone served

  • Service access

  • Size/Volume

  • Noise

  • Fire safety

  • Security

S: p. 380, F10.2


Locate secondary equipment2

Locate Secondary Equipment

Location factors

  • Adjacent to/within zone served

  • Service access

  • Size/Volume

  • Noise

  • Fire safety

  • Security

S: p. 380, F.10.2a


Locate secondary equipment3

Locate Secondary Equipment

Location factors

  • Adjacent to/within zone served

  • Service access

  • Size/Volume

  • Noise

  • Fire safety

  • Security

S: p. 380, F.10.2b


Locate secondary equipment4

Locate Secondary Equipment

Location factors

  • Adjacent to/within zone served

  • Service access

  • Size/Volume

  • Noise

  • Fire safety

  • Security

S: p. 380, F.10.2c


Locate secondary equipment5

Locate Secondary Equipment

Location factors

  • Adjacent to/within zone served

  • Service access

  • Size/Volume

  • Noise

  • Fire safety

  • Security

S: p. 380, F.10.2d


Locate secondary equipment6

Locate Secondary Equipment

Location factors

  • Adjacent to/within zone served

  • Service access

  • Size/Volume

  • Noise

  • Fire safety

  • Security


Locate distribution outlets

Locate Distribution Outlets

Distribution occurs via:

  • Air diffusers/ registers

  • Perimeter radiation

  • Panel radiation (floor or ceiling)

LNCO Dean’s Office Ceiling Space


Locate distribution paths

Locate Distribution Paths

Connect distribution outlets to secondary equipment

LNCO Fan Room


Locate distribution paths1

Locate Distribution Paths

Ductwork and piping can be located in vertically aligned chases or in ceiling space over corridors

Architect is responsible for locating access panels where needed

G. H. Schettler House


Locate distribution paths2

Locate Distribution Paths

Connect secondary equipment to primary equipment

Use vertical and horizontal zoning to coordinate trades


Locate distribution paths3

Locate Distribution Paths

Coordinate all trades for service access and space allocations

Equipment and access panels should be located away from occupied space when possible

LNCO System Distribution Coordination


Distribution paths

Distribution Paths

Interstitial floors for mechanical-electrical systems may be used to eliminate service/ user interaction

UM Hospital Campus


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