Argument writing
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Argument Writing. Moving from persuasive to argumentative essays. Conclusion. Language & Application. Body Paragraph. Restate/Rephrase Claim Argument Evidence General Rule Conclusion: Explanation w/Implication (tie to claim) Example and/or Anecdote. Good conclusion.

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Argument Writing

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Argument writing

Argument Writing

Moving from persuasive

to argumentative essays


Conclusion

Conclusion

Language & Application


Body paragraph

Body Paragraph

  • Restate/Rephrase Claim

  • Argument

    • Evidence

    • General Rule

    • Conclusion: Explanation w/Implication

      (tie to claim)

  • Example and/or Anecdote


Good conclusion

Good conclusion

  • Think of the final step in forming this argument as an explanation of two parts: implication, conclusion.

  • ADVICE: A good explanation lead the audience to their conclusion using Implication-

    • Implication: How does warrant link with evidence?

    • Conclude: Link back to your claim:

      Answer the questions, “How does this support the claim?”

  • Language for Implying:

    • Since…. then…

    • Because…, we can see…

    • Because…, we know…

    • Given that…, …

  • Language for Concluding:

  • Therefore…

  • As a result…

  • In conclusion…

  • On this basis…

  • To conclude…


Good conclusion1

Good conclusion

  • Think of the final step in forming this argument as an explanation of two parts: implication, conclusion.

  • ADVICE: A good explanation lead the audience to their conclusion using Implication-

    • Implication: How does warrant link with evidence?

    • Conclude: Link back to your claim:

      Answer the questions, “How does this support the claim?”

  • Language for Implying:

    • Since…. then…

    • Because…, we can see…

    • Because…, we know…

    • Given that…, …

Qualifications:

Likely

Probably

Reasonably

Logically

Definitely

Certainly

Perhaps

  • Language for Concluding:

  • Therefore…

  • As a result…

  • In conclusion…

  • On this basis…

  • To conclude…


Example argument

Example Argument

  • Claim: Queenie’s story is plausible.

  • Evidence: Arthur was legally drunk.

  • General Rule: In general, when someone is legally drunk, he or she has a hard time walking smoothly up and down stairs.

  • Conclusion: Since Arthur was legally drunk, he likely had a hard time walking smoothly up and down the stairs. Therefore, Arthur could have fallen, as Queenie says.

You try it now!

Revise your evidence/general rule, if needed.

Add your 2-part conclusion!


The detective s report

The Detective’s Report

Your assignment:

Write up a report to answer the Police Department’s question: Can we believe what Queenie Vanderbilt says?

Directions:

  • Use the essay structure.

  • Include at least 2 arguments, each in own body paragraph.

  • Report is due by the beginning of class tomorrow, Tuesday, 2-11-14.


Good conclusion explanation with implication

Good conclusion: Explanation with implication

  • Implication: explain how warrant links with evidence, leads to claim.

  • A good explanation lead the audience to their conclusion using Implication-

    • Link the explanation back to your claim,

    • Answer the questions, “How does this support the claim?”

      Finally, state the conclusion.

  • Conclusion: restatement of claim

    Congrats! You’ve formed an argument!


These explanations are missing implications

These explanations are missing implications:

  • If he had fell down why wouldn’t he grab on to some of the things on the wall or the rail to balance hisself or stop him from falling.

  • When people are threatened they can use weapons that can harm the person who is causing the persons feelings.

  • When people see someone on the floor uncatious they immediately call the police or an ambulence. Instead of just standing there.

  • When a human being falls down the stairs they either fall face first or roll down the stairs, and at the end of their body.


How implications and inferences are related

How implications and inferences are related

INFER

IMPLY

  • When you infer, you’re reading between the lines.

  • When you imply, you’re arranging lines so that someone can read something between them.

An implication is the actual thought you want to tell someone, in case they didn’t infer it. It’s a statement that links your evidence + general rule, back to your claim and completes your argument.

Explanation/Implication example: Since a fall down the stairs usually results in a person letting go of whatever they’re holding, Arthur likely would have let go of any glass he was holding. When we arrived, the glass was still in his hand, leading us to believe that Queenie is lying about his falling down the stairs.


Sample body paragraph in report

Sample Body Paragraph in report

Evidence that Queenie Vanderbilt is not telling the truth includes the glass found at the scene of the crime. As you can see, the glass in Arthur’s hand is not broken. In general, when someone falls down the stairs, whatever they’re holding falls and breaks. Since a fall down the stairs usually results in a person letting go of whatever they’re holding, Arthur likely would have let go of any glass he was holding. When we arrived, the glass was still in his hand, leading us to believe that Queenie is lying about his falling down the stairs. For example, Ulisses’ cousin Melissa once fell down the stairs while drinking a coke. While she didn’t cry, she did drop the cup of coke. We deduce that since Arthur is still holding the cup in his hand, Queenie was lying about his fall.


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