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Coastal Engineering – Theory and Practice . J. W. Kamphuis Queen’s University Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6. This paper and presentation are posted on: www.civil.queensu.ca. Abstract:

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Coastal engineering theory and practice
Coastal Engineering – Theory and Practice

J. W. Kamphuis

Queen’s University

Kingston, ON, Canada

K7L 3N6

This paper and presentation are posted on: www.civil.queensu.ca

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Abstract:

This paper attempts to identify the development of coastal engineering, paying particular attention to how its theory and practice have grown and are becoming alienated so that they no longer complement each other.

It presents some possible routes to preclude further separation and bring about possible symbiosis.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


1 history
1. History

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


The history of Coastal Science and Engineering is related to the history of civilization and societal development .

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


1. History the history of civilization and societal development .

(Western) Thinking

  • There was the Age of Providence – Please the god(s) and all is well

  • Then came the Age of Enlightenment – Replace inscrutable laws of fickle god(s) with constant laws of nature, which can be studied and understood and in time we should be able to chart our own course (Also called the Modern Era).

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


1. History the history of civilization and societal development .

But… :

  • Philosophers such as Nietzsche and Heidegger began to question the “Yes we Can!” euphoria.

  • Much of the original questioning took place in the late 19thCentury.

  • Thus began the Postmodern Era.

  • (Still not begun in many areas of science and technology, business and others).

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


1. History the history of civilization and societal development .

Coastal Engineering grew up in the “Late Modern” age

  • Wave forecasting for allied troop landings in 1944

  • Large expansion of facilities needed

  • Initial study of shores and shore protection.

  • ICCE began 1950.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


1. History the history of civilization and societal development .

Modern Aspects of Coastal Science and Engineering

  • Given time and funding we thought we could (think we can?) improve solutions indefinitely and give ever more accurate answers.

  • In the beginning the funding was there.

  • In the beginning a pressing need for improvements to shores and facilities wasthere.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


1. History the history of civilization and societal development .

But then…..

  • We lost confidence in the basic tool of coastal engineering and research, our trial and error tool, the physical model (around 1970). Models had reached practical limits; they could only provide answers up to a certain level of accuracy, larger models could not produce better results and became too costly.

  • (The computer arrived, but it just extended the euphoria by 40 years.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


1. History the history of civilization and societal development .

And we found…

  • Numerical modeling cannot reveal “the truth” even when calibrated with the best field data.

  • “Good” coastal engineering is not necessarily considered good by all.

  • There are no single, unique approaches to problems and no single answers.

  • This was essentially the end of modernity for Coastal Engineering and Science.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


2 learning
2. the history of civilization and societal development .Learning

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Learning or development curve

2. Learning the history of civilization and societal development .

Learning (or Development) Curve

Oops !

Development

(Knowledge, Religion, Business)

Rapid Progress

Time

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Ages of the learning curve

2. Learning the history of civilization and societal development .

Ages of the Learning Curve

Old age

Development

(Knowledge, Religion, Business)

Maturity

Infancy

Time

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


The learning curve of knowledge

2. Learning the history of civilization and societal development .

?

?

The Learning Curve of Knowledge

Postmodern

Modern Era

Enlightenment

Knowledge

Yes. we can !

Time

1700

1600

2000

1800

1900

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Learning curve kuhn 1977

2. Learning the history of civilization and societal development .

Learning Curve + Kuhn (1977)

Science becomes subculture (talks to itself)

Work is addressed to peers and adjudicated by peers

Challenges are internally imposed

(Improvement of theories, validating paradigm)

Old age

Knowledge

Pressing problems are solved

Development of sophisticated theories

Paradigm is articulated

Maturity

Solution of pressing practical problems Much empiricism

Infancy

Time

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Kuhn also defines paradigm shift

2. Learning the history of civilization and societal development .

Kuhn also defines Paradigm Shift

Paradigm Shift (Sharp Break with the Old)

Development

(Knowledge, Religion, Business)

Time

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Learning curve photography

2. Learning the history of civilization and societal development .

Learning Curve - Photography

Digital

Colour

Photography

Film

Plates

Paradigm Shift

Time

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Possible decline

2. Learning the history of civilization and societal development .

Possible Decline

Paradigm Shift

Development

(Knowledge, Religion, Business)

Knowledge and development can decline after paradigm shift due to lack of interest, people moving on to greener fields.

Time

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3 application of the learning curve kuhn to coastal engineering and science
3. Application of the Learning Curve + Kuhn to Coastal Engineering and Science

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Warning
Warning Engineering and Science

  • Some of the following may be offensive some of you.

  • It will contain coarse language.

  • It will contain scenes of nudity (the emperor has no clothes).

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Disclaimer
Disclaimer Engineering and Science

  • I use Kuhn’s work here.

  • It is perceptive.

  • But, as with all theoretical concepts, it is based on simplifications (as is this presentation).

  • Nevertheless, it is useful to gain insight into the development of coastal engineering and the theory/practice subject of this conference

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


I overstate the problem for clarity
I overstate the problem for clarity Engineering and Science

  • In spite of any pessimism I present,… there are many signs of hope, indications of improvement and course corrections.

  • There are many possibilities for further course corrections and improvements, etc.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3a learning curve kuhn 1977

3. Application Engineering and Science

3a. Learning Curve + Kuhn (1977)

This fits coastal theoretical work, but not coastal practice

Coastal Engineering becomes a subculture. Work is addressed to peers and adjudicated by peers. Challenges are internally imposed (Improvement of theories, validating paradigm).

Old age

Knowledge

Pressing problems are solved

Development of sophisticated theories

Paradigm is articulated

Maturity

Solution of pressing practical problems Much empiricism

Infancy

Time

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Stages of knowledge re interpreted

3. Application Engineering and Science

Stages of Knowledge Re-Interpreted

Theory and practice become separate cultures. Research goes much beyond solution of practical engineering problems.

Theory: Challenges internally posed, peer adjudication

Practice: External adjudication by clients and public

Old age

Knowledge

“Practice” and “Theory” work together to develop, more sophisticated methods – Theory supports practical solutions.

Maturity

“Practice” develops to solve (simpler) practical problems using much empiricism.

Infancy

Time

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

3b. Amplification of “Old Age”

Theory

Theory and practice become separate cultures. Research goes much beyond solution of practical engineering problems.

Theory: Challenges internally posed, peer adjudication

Practice: External adjudication by clients and public

Practice

The difference is the Adjudication!

Remember - Overstatement for focus !

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

3b. How did we get there ?

  • Traditionally, decision making and design was simple. A project owner hired an engineer, a practical individual, who simplified concepts, designed by trial and error (models) – Infancy.

  • Then we improved our solutions with formal university courses, given by (practicing) engineers and who conducted research in support of better engineering - Maturity.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

How did we get there?

  • Universities want to be “universities” and not “professional schools”.

  • This means Research as well as teaching of Practice.

  • The Universities, however, need to emphasize research

    • To generate additional income

    • To develop reputation

  • This normally comes at the expense of teaching.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

How did we get there?

  • Valuable research results are understood by the universities to be (Peer Reviewed) Publications and Citations, which are purported to be:

    • Hard evidence of scientific achievement

    • Improvement of scientific theories

    • Validation of the existing paradigm, etc

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

How did we get there?

  • This “Research” has become a self-contained game (as in Old Age as defined by Kuhn - “a subculture that talks to itself”)

    • This Research/(Publish or Perish) culture defines researchers/theoreticians, but also practicing engineers.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

How did we get there?

  • Researchers/Theoreticians.

  • TheResearch/Publish or Perish culture defines research funding, hiring, salaries, promotion and tenure.

  • This forces Engineering Profs, Ph.D’s, Postdocs and Graduate Students (our brightest minds) into the research game and away from practice (and from teaching engineering).

  • Discussion with Sam

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

How did we get there?

  • Since the Engineering Profs must focus mainly on research, students are less exposed to actual, practical engineering concepts, supported by their prof’s practical experience.

  • The busy profs also relegate teaching to PhDs, postdocs and teaching assistants, who have little or no practical experience.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

How did we get there?

  • Engineers in Practice

  • At the same time theResearch/(Publish or Perish) culture also defines engineers in practice:

    • They are essentially outside the system

    • There is no incentive for them to join hands with their researcher/theoretician colleagues.

    • They walk away from the very force that defines them as well as their colleagues

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

How did we get there?

  • This rant about the disconnect between practice and theory (engineering and research) is not unique for coastal engineering. It is voiced regularly in civil engineering and in other applied science disciplines. But it is also voiced in other professional disciplines, such as medicine, law, etc.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

Finally

How did we get there?

  • The peer review system that drives the publish/perish and reward systems is seriously flawed.

    • Because of specialization, adjudicating peers are close colleagues, often friends.

    • This is not objective adjudication

    • It tends to preserve the status quo

    • The system is of little interest to engineers in practice and v.v. , thus missing a vital input into the system.

The emperor is clearly without clothes!

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

  • In light of:

    • Climate change - sea level rise, increased storm activity

    • Man-induced land subsidence.

    • Continued population encroachment upon the world’s shorelines.

    • etc.

  • We can no longer afford to:

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

  • We can no longer afford to:

    • Institutionally reduce “good” Coastal Engineering to peer- adjudicated Coastal Research

    • Downgrade the teaching of practical engineering.

    • Support a rewards system that is primarily based on the number of citations and published papers

    • Support peer review systems, university education and technical conferences that draw young people away from practical engineering and into more theoretical science. (Easier, safer, sexier?).

  • There are many hopeful signs ! (e.g. 1st yr design courses)

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

  • We need engineers who can synthesize technical information and integrate it with Socio-Economic constraints to formulate problems accurately and to provide solutions to very complex problems.

  • This is not Science – it is Engineering; the application of science to real life problems for practical answers.

  • And future problems will not become any easier or less urgent.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3d coastal learning curves

3. Application Engineering and Science

3d. Coastal Learning Curves ??

Today

1970

100

Numerical

Modeling

Physical Modelling

?

75

Development

% of Potential

50

Process

Knowledge

Data

Collection

25

Time

0

1950

1910

1930

1970

1990

2010

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

Today

1970

  • 1970:

  • The steepness of the numerical modeling, process knowledge and field measurement curves resulted from the introduction of computers.

  • We took full advantage of the opportunities provided by the computer.

Development

(% of potential)

100

Physical Modeling

Numerical

Modeling

75

50

Process

Knowledge

(Theory)

Field Data

Collection

25

Time

0

1910

1950

1930

1970

1990

2010

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3. Application Engineering and Science

Today

1970

  • 2011:

  • All learning curves are quite flat.

  • This is the “Old Age” of Coastal Engineering

  • Therefore, we can not - must not - continue along the old paths followed since 1970 (as we continue to do at present).

Development

(% of potential)

100

Physical Modeling

Numerical

Modeling

75

50

Process

Knowledge

(Theory)

Field Data

Collection

25

Time

0

1910

1950

1930

1970

1990

2010

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


3e coastal learning curve

3. Application Engineering and Science

3e. Coastal Learning Curve??

Paradigm Shift ?? (Introduction of computers)

Development

(Knowledge, Religion, Business)

Decline in knowledge and development of Physical Modeling

Time

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


4 how can we proceed
4. How can we proceed? Engineering and Science

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Proceed? Engineering and Science

  • Rapid advancement can occur through a paradigm shift

    • We should be so fortunate!

    • We need to encourage it by funding real innovative thinking with money that is not tied to peer review and publications only.

    • Set up a “Coastal Think Tank” ?

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Proceed? Engineering and Science

  • In the meantime, to advance at all (to be able to meet the present and future design complexities, uncertainties and the approvals procedures) we need a concerted (and integrated) effort on all fronts – process knowledge (theory), physical modeling, numerical modeling, field measurement.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Proceed? Engineering and Science

  • We must take advantage of the particular strengths of each element.

  • We must integrate science and engineering, re-integrate theory and practice and integrate all our tools, people, facilities and cultures.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Proceed? Engineering and Science

  • Specialization has occurred within coastal engineering, e.g. numerical modeling, waves, sediment transport, breakwaters, environmental, construction, etc.

  • This is inevitable – it is the “continental drift” of progress of knowledge.

  • It is generated in a positive feedback loop with peer review.

  • But…

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Proceed? Engineering and Science

  • To be able to solve practical problems, we must connect the various ‘expert silos’ better and concentrate on the more general concepts of coastal engineering, as well as on the specialties.

  • This will be very difficult, since career advancement is generally based on specialization, publication, etc (It is like stopping continental drift?).

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


5 integration of cultures expertise tools and people
5. Integration Engineering and Science(of cultures, expertise, tools and people)

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Integration Engineering and Science

Closer (physical) integration of cultures

  • Theory ↔ Practice

  • University Education ↔ Engineering

  • Physical ↔ Numerical Model (ing, ers)

  • Physical Laboratory Space

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


(physical) integration of Engineering and Science cultures

Integration

1. Theory ↔ Practice :

  • As a profession, we must define exactly what we mean by these terms.

  • We must together define a prioritized agenda of research needs and update it regularly (forming a target for research).

  • We must find means to fund these vital priority research topics (e.g. lobby !).

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


(physical) integration of Engineering and Science cultures

Integration

1. Theory  Practice

  • We must address the peer review of engineering research and create room for greater interest and involvement of practicing engineers.

  • We must address the university reward system for engineers (and other professions?)

  • We must address the system of research funding for engineering research.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


(physical) integration of Engineering and Science cultures

Integration

1. Theory  Practice

  • We must encourage (and find funding for) participation of practicing engineers in peer review, tenure and promotion committees, etc.

  • Inclusivity is part of the basic fabric of universities. We need to stress Equal Opportunity for practice and theory - e.g. count engineering reports, patents, practical experience, etc., as well as the usual scholarly achievements.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


(physical) integration of Engineering and Science cultures

Integration

2. University Education ↔ Engineering:

  • We must as a profession define engineering education, e.g. theory + application + problem solving + skills.

  • We must increase interaction on the shop floor – Students and Professors must spend time regularly in industry – “Scholarships and sabbaticals in practice, co-op programs, etc.” (and find funding)

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


(physical) integration of Engineering and Science cultures

Integration

2. University Education  Engineering

  • We must get engineers into the universities “Engineers in Residence, Mentoring, Educational leaves, design courses, etc.” (and find funding).

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


(physical) integration of Engineering and Science cultures

Integration

2. University Education  Engineering

  • We must encourage and develop “Industrial Academies”

  • The coastal courses run by the developers of software, are a great idea. But they must be technically broad and teach theory and application, as well as skills with software.

  • If the university does not teach practice, the profession must AND IN A PROFESSIONAL MANNER.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


(physical) integration of Engineering and Science cultures

Integration

3. Physical ↔ Numerical Model(ing,ers)

  • This is happening.

  • My first job  My second job

    4. Physical Modelers - Join forces, co-operate, share facilities and expertise.

  • HYDRALAB is an excellent example.

    Always problematic because of intellectual

    property and perceived leading positions.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Comment

(physical) integration of Engineering and Science cultures

Integration

Comment

  • This integration will cost money.

  • To generate funding, we must immediately be able to show added value:

    • Better, more relevant education = $$,

    • More competent engineers = €, ¥,

    • Shorter project approval periods mean reduced costs,

    • Academic rewards for engineering as well as research will improve performance,

    • etc, etc, etc.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Final note

(physical) integration of Engineering and Science cultures

Integration

Final Note

  • This is a road map.

  • It does not tell you about the vistas and flowers along the road – stop to look around and smell the roses!

  • It does not tell you what has been done to the road in the past to straighten the curves, improve the sight lines, widen the shoulders etc.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


Final note1

(physical) integration of Engineering and Science cultures

Integration

Final Note

  • Many people have been and are working to improve the road.

  • What I present is not something new.

  • The problem is not unique to coastal engineering

  • We are not starting, we are in a process.

  • But there is much to be done to prevent further crashes on the road.

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


The paper is posted on www civil queensu ca or google j william kamphuis

Thank You Engineering and Science

The paper is posted on:www.civil.queensu.ca(or google: j williamkamphuis)

J.W. Kamphuis Coastal Eng. Theory and Practice


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