The microscope
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The Microscope. The Art of Looking at Cells. Artists are often inspired by biology and biology depends on art The paintings of Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) show the influence of cellular forms. Illustration is an important way to represent what scientists see through microscopes.

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The Microscope

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The microscope

The Microscope


The art of looking at cells

The Art of Looking at Cells

  • Artists are often inspired by biology and biology depends on art

  • The paintings of Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) show the influence of cellular forms


The microscope

  • Illustration is an important way to represent what scientists see through microscopes

  • The anatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) was trained as an artist

    • He drew these retina nerve cells


The microscope

INTRODUCTION TO THE WORLD OF THE CELL

  • The microscope was invented in the 17th century

  • Using a microscope, Robert Hooke discovered cells in 1665

  • All living things are made of cells (cell theory)


The cell theory 3 key observations

The Cell Theory3 Key Observations

  • All organisms are made up of one or more cells and the products of these cells.

  • All cells carry on their own life activities.

  • New cells can only arise from other living cells by the process of cell division.


4 1 microscopes provide windows to the world of the cell

4.1 Microscopes provide windows to the world of the cell

  • The light microscope enables us to see the overall shape and structure of a cell

Image seen by viewer

Eyepiece

Ocularlens

Objective lens

Specimen

Condenser lens

Light source

Figure 4.1A


The microscope

  • Electron microscopes were invented in the 1950s

  • They use a beam of electrons instead of light

  • The greater resolving power of electron microscopes

    • allows greater magnification

    • reveals cellular details


The microscope

  • Scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  • Scanning electron micrograph of cilia

  • Give a 3-D appearance to the image

Figure 4.1B


The microscope

  • Transmission electron microscope (TEM)

  • Transmission electron micrograph of cilia

Figure 4.1C


4 2 cell sizes vary with their function

4.2 Cell sizes vary with their function

  • Below is a list of the most common units of length biologists use (metric)

Table 4.2


The microscope

  • Cell size and shape relate to function

Figure 4.2


4 3 natural laws limit cell size

4.3 Natural laws limit cell size

  • At minimum, a cell must be large enough to house the parts it needs to survive and reproduce

  • The maximum size of a cell is limited by the amount of surface needed to obtain nutrients from the environment and dispose of wastes


The microscope

  • A small cell has a greater ratio of surface area to volume than a large cell of the same shape

30 µm

10 µm

Surface areaof one large cube= 5,400 µm2

Total surface areaof 27 small cubes= 16,200 µm2

Figure 4.3


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