Literary Arsenal. As we journey through literature together this year, we will come upon both foes and friends, just as all adventurers do. Therefore, we will need to do the following to gain the most from our epic odyssey:
Definition: The perspective from which a speaker or writer recounts a narrative or presents information.
Definition: the process of revealing the personality of a character in a story
Definition: the writer tells readers what kind of person a character is
Definition: the process of revealing the personality of a character through actions, speech, other characters, and unspoken thoughts in a story
Definition: one who does not change much in the course of the story
Definition: one who changes as a result of the story’s events
Definition: one who has one or two traits, and these can be described in a short phrase
Definition: one, who like a real person, has many different character traits, sometimes contradictory
Definition: Reference to a statement, a person, a place, or an event from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture.
Definition: the main character in the story
The character who battles the main conflict
The protagonist changes in some important way
Definition: person or thing with whom or what the protagonist struggles
The character or force that blocks the protagonist
Definition: a figurative use of language in which a comparison is expressed without the use of the terms “as” or “like”
Definition: a directly expressed comparison; a figure of speech comparing two unlike objects with “like” or “as”
Definition: the author’s message about life that can be learned from the text
Definition: a form of paradox that combines a pair of contrary terms into a single expression
The time, place, and environment in which the action takes place.
The arrangement or framework of a sentence, paragraph, or entire work.
A long narrative POEM in elevated STYLE, presenting characters of high position in a series of adventures
--the HERO is a figure of imposing stature, of national or international importance, and of great historical or legendary significance;
--the SETTING is vast in scope, covering great nations, the world, or the universe;
--the action consists of deeds of great valor or requiring superhuman courage
--supernatural forces—gods, angels, and demons--interest themselves in the action and intervene from time to time;
--a STYLE of sustained elevation and grand simplicity is used; and
--the epic poet recounts the deeds of his heroes with objectivity.
--the poet opens by stating his theme,
invokes a Muse to inspire and instruct him,
and opens his narrative in medias res—in the middle of things—giving the necessary exposition in later portions of the epic;
--he includes CATALOGS of warriors, ships, armies;
--he gives extended formal speeches by the main characters;
--he makes frequent use of the EPIC SIMILE.
Verbal: a writer or speaker says one thing but really means something completely different
Dramatic: occurs when the audience / reader knows something important a character in a play or story does not know
Situational: occurs when there is a contrast between what would seem appropriate and what really happens or when there is a contradiction between what we expect to happen and what really does take place
Endowing non-human objects or creatures with human qualities or characteristics
Adjective or descriptive phrase that is regularly used to describe a person, place, or thing.
A character used to contrast another character in a story.
the choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing
The use of clues to hint at events that will occur later in the plot.
A way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people.
The point of highest interest in a literary work
Turning point in the plot that leads to the resolution
An author’s purpose is the reason an author decides to write about a specific topic.
Once a topic is selected, the author must decide whether his purpose for writing is to inform, persuade, entertain, or explain his ideas to the reader.
All the meanings, emotions, and associations that have become attached to some words.
The literal dictionary definitions of a word.
A writer’s attitude toward the subject he/she is writing about.
Way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people.
A language has its own vocabulary and grammatical features.
Dialects reveal a person’s economic or social class.
Shows the effects that the climax had on the characters
The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several sentences, clauses, or paragraphs that are next to each other
poetic or rhetorical effect
"We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills" (Winston S. Churchill).
an expression that cannot be understood from the literal meanings of its separate words, but that has a meaning of its own