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The Rise of Islamic Empires in the Middle East, Europe, and India. Readings: Smith, 488-494, 620-639, 647-659. The Rise of The Ottoman Empire. Ottomans Controlled Most of Turkey and the Balkans by 1389.

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The rise of islamic empires in the middle east europe and india

The Rise of Islamic Empires in the Middle East, Europe, and India

Readings: Smith, 488-494, 620-639, 647-659



Ottomans controlled most of turkey and the balkans by 1389
Ottomans Controlled Most of Turkey and the Balkans by 1389 India

  • Prior to 1453 – Mehmed II constructed fortress of Rumelyi to control access to Black Sea from the Bospherus


Conquest of constantinople
Conquest of Constantinople India

  • In 15th Century Ottomans moved broadly against Europe, Persia, and Egypt.

  • April 6-May 29 1453 They besieged and conquered Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, under Sultan Mehmed II, which ended the Byzantine Empire

    • Benefitted from Hungarian engineer Urban’s bombards or cannons

    • Used rich iron ore and copper from Hungary


Constantinople becomes istanbul
Constantinople becomes Istanbul India

  • Churches like Haghia Sophia were transformed into mosques, though many Christian features remain.





Turks
Turks India

  • Turks faced hostile populations of Jews, Catholics, Orthodox Christians, some Muslims.

  • The Turks allowed everyone to practice whatever religion they wanted as long as they paid taxes at first but gradually persecuted Christians and drove many out of the country

  • Managed vast, culturally diverse empire through the Janissary Army and Civil Service.


Mehmed ii the ruler of the two seas and the two continents
Mehmed II: “the ruler of the two seas and the two continents”

  • Janissaries - Took Christian boys and made them slaves

  • Under Mehmed II - By 16th century they had control of Mediterranean and Black Seas—fought with Portugal over control of Indian Ocean-

  • Mehmed aimed to recreate Byzantine Empire as an Islamic state – attempted to rely heavily on Italian culture and fashion

  • One of main industries: carpet-making


Suleiman the magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent continents”

  • Joined royal and religious law.

  • He had many challenges

    • Mostly from Eastern Turkey, the Safavid Empire (the Persians)


How did ottomans exercise power
How Did Ottomans Exercise Power? continents”

  • Center of Power – in Istanbul—the Topkapi Saray

    • A fortress, sanctuary, and shrine

    • Laid out by Mehmed II

    • Outer walls and inner walls with Inner palace in deep interior—palace housed treasury, a library, and the sultan’s pavilion

    • Inner court closed to all but state officials – visitors confined to outer court

    • Around the edges, secret hideaway spots for the Sultan’s harem


Interior harem
Interior Harem continents”


Harem interior
Harem Interior continents”


Ottoman power
Ottoman Power continents”

  • Topkapi Palace housed 10 mosques, 14 bathhouses, 2 hospitals, 2,000 (800) women and 4,000 horses

  • Sultan housed in sacred spaces with relics of the prophet Muhammad – controlled the institutions and sacred places related to Sunni Islam

  • Externally—law code, tolerance, military power, still profited from spice trade, tribute from Europeans

  • Internally—palace often ruled by eunuchs and concubines, as well as sultan’s mother, but more rational than many Europeans believed


Safavid empire
Safavid Empire continents”

  • Shaped by Persians (1501-1773), more a state than an empire, but had imperial ambitions

  • Like Ottomans, benefitted from trade across Eurasia

  • Ruled through a hereditary class of fighters – the Qizilbash


Shah abbas
Shah Abbas continents”

  • Expanded the Safavid Empire from 1588-1629

  • Created capital at Isfahan

  • Won gains in the caucuses and central Asia, expelled the Portuguese from Hormuz

  • Insisted that everyone practice Shi’ite version of Islam – left no room for religious pluralism – even though most people they governed not originally Shi’ites


The mughal empire
The Mughal Empire continents”

  • Babur started to conquerIndia in 1523 and took Delhi in 1526.

  • Mughal was the Indian word for Mongols

  • Babur and his followers didn’t like India because of the caste system and religion

  • Humayun




Legacy of humayun 1508 1556
Legacy of Humayun continents”(1508-1556)

  • Faced many obstacles-mostly from brothers

  • Consolidated Rule

  • Interested in Science and Astrology

  • Died falling down stairs from library carrying books

  • Picture—Humayun with Babur


Akbar humayun s son 1556 1605
Akbar – Humayun’s Son (1556-1605) continents”

  • Was one of the great leaders of India.

  • He couldn’t read; there is a chance he was dyslexic

  • He had others read to him so he could learn.

  • Married daughters of Rajputs (800 wives)

  • He encouraged art and architecture.

  • Good fighter but believed in diplomacy – picture with Jesuits at court

  • Tolerated and encouraged toleration of Hindus



Jahangir 1569 1627
Jahangir (1569-1627 continents”

  • Ruled from 1605-1627 after father-Akbar-died

  • Very well educated, spoke 4 languages

  • He had little interest in India

  • Emphasized Sunni Islam

  • He married a Persian – Nur Jahan and let her run the country – she had been a widow in his court

  • More interested in drinking and smoking opium than ruling


Nur jahan power behind the throne
Nur Jahan – Power Behind the Throne continents”

  • Persian – gave positions in government to all her male relatives

  • Tough ruler

  • Good businesswoman–encouraged trade and industry-manufactured perfume, cosmetics

  • Owned ships she used for commercial endeavors

  • Wrote poetry under the name Makhifi


Shah jahan
Shah Jahan continents”

  • Jahangir’s son

  • Basically imprisoned Nur Jahan until she died (she had backed his brother)

  • He ruled from 1628-1657.

  • Built the Peacock throne and the Taj Majal.

  • Built the Taj Majal as a monument to his wife when she died in childbirth in 1631.


Peacock throne
Peacock Throne continents”


Taj majal
Taj Majal continents”


Rebellion of aurangzeb
Rebellion of Aurangzeb continents”

  • Defeats Father - Shah Jahan in 1658 and becomes emperor.

  • Ruled until 1707.

  • He actively tries to conquer all of India and got most of it except the South.


Rule of aurangzib
Rule of Aurangzib continents”

  • Aurangzib was an ardent Muslim and he prohibited the Hindu religion and destroyed the Hindu temples.

  • In 1679 he imposed a special tax on non-Muslims and created an Islamic moral police that tried to enforce orthodoxy.

  • He also required all women to marry

  • By his death there was much turmoil.


A summary of these empires
A summary of these empires continents”

  • Though these were powerful empires why did they decline?

    • One reason was they spent a lot of money fighting wars

    • Spent enormous sums on monumental architecture to display power

    • Power – Superficially external visible – Real power Hidden in inner quarters

    • Worked well when tolerant – mostly not

    • Resisted new developments in western technology and science

    • Saw trade very differently from Europeans.


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