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The Rise of Islamic Empires in the Middle East, Europe, and India. Readings: Smith, 488-494, 620-639, 647-659. The Rise of The Ottoman Empire. Ottomans Controlled Most of Turkey and the Balkans by 1389.

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The Rise of Islamic Empires in the Middle East, Europe, and India

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The rise of islamic empires in the middle east europe and india

The Rise of Islamic Empires in the Middle East, Europe, and India

Readings: Smith, 488-494, 620-639, 647-659

The rise of the ottoman empire

The Rise of The Ottoman Empire

Ottomans controlled most of turkey and the balkans by 1389

Ottomans Controlled Most of Turkey and the Balkans by 1389

  • Prior to 1453 – Mehmed II constructed fortress of Rumelyi to control access to Black Sea from the Bospherus

Conquest of constantinople

Conquest of Constantinople

  • In 15th Century Ottomans moved broadly against Europe, Persia, and Egypt.

  • April 6-May 29 1453 They besieged and conquered Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, under Sultan Mehmed II, which ended the Byzantine Empire

    • Benefitted from Hungarian engineer Urban’s bombards or cannons

    • Used rich iron ore and copper from Hungary

Constantinople becomes istanbul

Constantinople becomes Istanbul

  • Churches like Haghia Sophia were transformed into mosques, though many Christian features remain.

Kariye kilisesi chora church

Kariye Kilisesi (Chora Church)

Blue mosque 1609 1616

Blue Mosque – 1609-1616

Interior blue mosque

Interior Blue Mosque



  • Turks faced hostile populations of Jews, Catholics, Orthodox Christians, some Muslims.

  • The Turks allowed everyone to practice whatever religion they wanted as long as they paid taxes at first but gradually persecuted Christians and drove many out of the country

  • Managed vast, culturally diverse empire through the Janissary Army and Civil Service.

Mehmed ii the ruler of the two seas and the two continents

Mehmed II: “the ruler of the two seas and the two continents”

  • Janissaries - Took Christian boys and made them slaves

  • Under Mehmed II - By 16th century they had control of Mediterranean and Black Seas—fought with Portugal over control of Indian Ocean-

  • Mehmed aimed to recreate Byzantine Empire as an Islamic state – attempted to rely heavily on Italian culture and fashion

  • One of main industries: carpet-making

Suleiman the magnificent

Suleiman the Magnificent

  • Joined royal and religious law.

  • He had many challenges

    • Mostly from Eastern Turkey, the Safavid Empire (the Persians)

How did ottomans exercise power

How Did Ottomans Exercise Power?

  • Center of Power – in Istanbul—the Topkapi Saray

    • A fortress, sanctuary, and shrine

    • Laid out by Mehmed II

    • Outer walls and inner walls with Inner palace in deep interior—palace housed treasury, a library, and the sultan’s pavilion

    • Inner court closed to all but state officials – visitors confined to outer court

    • Around the edges, secret hideaway spots for the Sultan’s harem

Interior harem

Interior Harem

Harem interior

Harem Interior

Ottoman power

Ottoman Power

  • Topkapi Palace housed 10 mosques, 14 bathhouses, 2 hospitals, 2,000 (800) women and 4,000 horses

  • Sultan housed in sacred spaces with relics of the prophet Muhammad – controlled the institutions and sacred places related to Sunni Islam

  • Externally—law code, tolerance, military power, still profited from spice trade, tribute from Europeans

  • Internally—palace often ruled by eunuchs and concubines, as well as sultan’s mother, but more rational than many Europeans believed

Safavid empire

Safavid Empire

  • Shaped by Persians (1501-1773), more a state than an empire, but had imperial ambitions

  • Like Ottomans, benefitted from trade across Eurasia

  • Ruled through a hereditary class of fighters – the Qizilbash

Shah abbas

Shah Abbas

  • Expanded the Safavid Empire from 1588-1629

  • Created capital at Isfahan

  • Won gains in the caucuses and central Asia, expelled the Portuguese from Hormuz

  • Insisted that everyone practice Shi’ite version of Islam – left no room for religious pluralism – even though most people they governed not originally Shi’ites

The mughal empire

The Mughal Empire

  • Babur started to conquerIndia in 1523 and took Delhi in 1526.

  • Mughal was the Indian word for Mongols

  • Babur and his followers didn’t like India because of the caste system and religion

  • Humayun

Early mughal rulers babur 1483 1530

Early Mughal Rulers – Babur (1483-1530)

Early mughal rulers humayun babur s son

Early Mughal Rulers – Humayun – Babur’s Son

Legacy of humayun 1508 1556

Legacy of Humayun (1508-1556)

  • Faced many obstacles-mostly from brothers

  • Consolidated Rule

  • Interested in Science and Astrology

  • Died falling down stairs from library carrying books

  • Picture—Humayun with Babur

Akbar humayun s son 1556 1605

Akbar – Humayun’s Son (1556-1605)

  • Was one of the great leaders of India.

  • He couldn’t read; there is a chance he was dyslexic

  • He had others read to him so he could learn.

  • Married daughters of Rajputs (800 wives)

  • He encouraged art and architecture.

  • Good fighter but believed in diplomacy – picture with Jesuits at court

  • Tolerated and encouraged toleration of Hindus

Akbar s palace fatehpur sikri

Akbar’s Palace – Fatehpur Sikri

Jahangir 1569 1627

Jahangir (1569-1627

  • Ruled from 1605-1627 after father-Akbar-died

  • Very well educated, spoke 4 languages

  • He had little interest in India

  • Emphasized Sunni Islam

  • He married a Persian – Nur Jahan and let her run the country – she had been a widow in his court

  • More interested in drinking and smoking opium than ruling

Nur jahan power behind the throne

Nur Jahan – Power Behind the Throne

  • Persian – gave positions in government to all her male relatives

  • Tough ruler

  • Good businesswoman–encouraged trade and industry-manufactured perfume, cosmetics

  • Owned ships she used for commercial endeavors

  • Wrote poetry under the name Makhifi

Shah jahan

Shah Jahan

  • Jahangir’s son

  • Basically imprisoned Nur Jahan until she died (she had backed his brother)

  • He ruled from 1628-1657.

  • Built the Peacock throne and the Taj Majal.

  • Built the Taj Majal as a monument to his wife when she died in childbirth in 1631.

Peacock throne

Peacock Throne

Taj majal

Taj Majal

Rebellion of aurangzeb

Rebellion of Aurangzeb

  • Defeats Father - Shah Jahan in 1658 and becomes emperor.

  • Ruled until 1707.

  • He actively tries to conquer all of India and got most of it except the South.

Rule of aurangzib

Rule of Aurangzib

  • Aurangzib was an ardent Muslim and he prohibited the Hindu religion and destroyed the Hindu temples.

  • In 1679 he imposed a special tax on non-Muslims and created an Islamic moral police that tried to enforce orthodoxy.

  • He also required all women to marry

  • By his death there was much turmoil.

A summary of these empires

A summary of these empires

  • Though these were powerful empires why did they decline?

    • One reason was they spent a lot of money fighting wars

    • Spent enormous sums on monumental architecture to display power

    • Power – Superficially external visible – Real power Hidden in inner quarters

    • Worked well when tolerant – mostly not

    • Resisted new developments in western technology and science

    • Saw trade very differently from Europeans.

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