Delineation of winter and pre breeding habitats of rocky mountain population trumpeter swans
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Delineation of Winter and Pre-breeding Habitats of Rocky Mountain Population Trumpeter Swans. Core tri-state wintering area of RMP trumpeter swans. History and Status of Trumpeter Swans. Restoration efforts underway since the 1930s

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Core tri state wintering area of rmp trumpeter swans

Core tri-state wintering area of RMP trumpeter swans Mountain Population Trumpeter Swans


History and status of trumpeter swans

History and Status of Trumpeter Swans Mountain Population Trumpeter Swans

Restoration efforts underway since the 1930s

Translocations have resulted in more trumpeter swans in North America

The Canada breeding segment of the RMP has increased

The number of breeding swans in the core tri-state area of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming remains low


Entire tri state breeding population in 2006 312 adults and only 33 successful nests

Entire Tri-state breeding population in 2006: Mountain Population Trumpeter Swans 312 adults and only 33 successful nests


Rocky Mountain Population is between the black dashed lines Mountain Population Trumpeter Swans

Notice the large Canada breeding area and the small tri-state core area


Tri state swans increase to several thousand in winter

Tri-state swans increase to several thousand in winter Mountain Population Trumpeter Swans

The Canada breeding portion of the Rocky Mountain Population has increased to >4000

Canadian birds migrate to winter in the tri-state

<1,000 wintered in the tri-state before 1980

>5,400 in February 2006 winter survey

Competition with swans from Canada in winter may reduce productivity of the tri-state breeders




On the National Elk Refuge, wintering swans removed 42% of foliage and 28% of tubers of Stuckenia pectinatus (Squires 1991)


Other important foods include chara elodea and myriophyllum exalbescens

Other important foods include foliage and 28% of tubers of Chara, Elodea, and Myriophyllum exalbescens


The 2002 Trumpeter Swan Implementation Plan (TSIP) calls for reducing swans wintering the core tri-state area to 1,500

Redistribution efforts have included

Trapping and translocating hundreds of cygnets to areas outside the core area

Hazing of concentrations of swans from lakes and rivers



Tsip also called for

TSIP also called for: where swans were trapped and hazed

Our goal:

Inventory of suitable habitat throughout the range of RMP

The development of a comprehensive database and model of potential habitat availability

  • Use image analysis and GIS to delineate areas of both used and potential wintering habitat in the tri-state core and beyond


Method supervised classification

Method – Supervised Classification where swans were trapped and hazed

To use image analysis software to

determine the reflectance characteristics of wetlands known to be used by wintering swans

find other locations that have those same characteristics (potential habitat)

Used the Leica Image Analysis Extension for ArcGIS


Landsat tm data

  • The positives: where swans were trapped and hazed

  • Provides 8 spectral bands

    • visible, infrared, and thermal

  • Each scene is big

    • All of Yellowstone NP in 1

Landsat TM data


Landsat tm data1

Landsat TM data where swans were trapped and hazed

The positives:

Provides 8 spectral bands

visible, infrared, and thermal

Each scene is big

All of Yellowstone NP in 1

Computer can easily handle the 9-scene mosaic required

Our tri-state mosaic

It’s available and free


Landsat tm data2

Landsat TM data where swans were trapped and hazed

The positives:

Provides 8 spectral bands

visible, infrared, and thermal

Each scene is big

All of Yellowstone NP in 1

Computer can easily handle the 9-scene mosaic required

Our tri-state mosaic

It’s available and free

The negatives:

15-m to 60-m pixel size

Might miss smaller wetlands


Swan winter location data

Swan winter location data where swans were trapped and hazed

  • Nov-Feb (winter) resightings within tri-state region represent >16,000 records of swans in >100 separate locations

Neckband resighting records collected over the last 17 years (since 1990)

1990-2002 have been tabulated with lat –long locations


Yellow dots each represent from 1 to several hundred neck band sightings during winter nov feb

Yellow dots each represent from 1 to several hundred neck band sightings during winter (Nov-Feb)


Yellow dots each represent from 1 to several hundred neck band sightings during winter nov feb1

Yellow dots each represent from 1 to several hundred neck band sightings during winter (Nov-Feb)


Second set of location data

Second set of location data band sightings during winter (Nov-Feb)

Winter aerial surveys flown annually for the last 5 years (2002-2006)

Separate counts for >200 named areas in the Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming

Lat-long locations were not usually precise enough for our purposes here

Only Wyoming data for 2006 were considered precise enough



Selection of pixel for classification as swan habitat: swan or single group of swans

One pixel per survey point

Only wetland (dark) pixels used

Within 2 pixels of survey point


Selection of pixel for classification as swan habitat: swan or single group of swans

One pixel per survey point

Only wetland (dark) pixels used

Within 2 pixels of survey point


Supervised classification: swan or single group of swans

Software found all pixels on the image within the spectral range of those selected

Analysis used all 8 Landsat TM spectral bands


Supervised classification: swan or single group of swans

Software found all pixels on the image within the spectral range of those selected

Analysis used all 8 Landsat TM spectral bands


Interim conclusions work is on going

Interim Conclusions swan or single group of swans(work is on-going)

The technique seems promising

More, geographically precise swan location data are needed over the entire area

We hope to use higher resolution imagery only within areas identified as wetlands by NWI maps

Would like to incorporate a classification of wetland sites known to NOT be suitable to swans to improve the classification

Ultimately need to validate the final product against independent swan locations


If successful

If successful swan or single group of swans

The map of potential wintering sites would be useful in carrying out the Flyway’s Trumpeter Swan Implementation Plan

Identify possible translocation sites

Model probabilities swans will find these sites

On their own, based on known swan food-searching and dispersal characteristics

Upon hazing from traditional wintering areas


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements swan or single group of swans

Eastern Kentucky University

USGS

Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center

Montana State University

US Fish and Wildlife

Migratory Birds

Pacific Flyway


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