The structure of nominalization in burmese
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The Structure of Nominalization in Burmese. How Underlying Nominals Provide Order to the Grammar. Ontological Nominals function as a kind of Architectural Support to Language. Burma. 11-16th Century Written Burmese – Modern – Formal Burmese.

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The structure of nominalization in burmese

The Structure of Nominalization in Burmese

How Underlying Nominals Provide Order to the Grammar

Ontological nominals function as a kind of architectural support to language
Ontological Nominals function as a kind of Architectural Support to Language


11-16th Century Written Burmese – Modern – Formal Burmese

17-20th Century Spoken Burmese – Modern – Colloquial Burmese

Burmese nominals
Burmese Nominals

  • Observation: Pervasive use of nominalization on multiple levels – word to sentence.

  • T-B Linguists have observed different kinds of nominalizations with odd functions across many languages (relativization/genitivization).

  • Nominals functioning as more than local nouns.

  • High frequency of affixually derived nominalizations functioning as other parts of speech — adverbs and adjectives.

What is nominalization
What is nominalization?

  • A noun or noun-like construction

    • “The barbarians’ destruction of the city”

    • “John’s criticism of the book”

  • "A nominalization is a noun phrase that has a systematic correspondence with a clausal predication which includes a head noun morphologically related to a corresponding verb."

    • “The barbarians destroyedthe city.”

    • “John criticized the book.”

How is nominalization manifest in burmese
How is nominalization manifest in Burmese?

  • Compound Nouns:

    • ‘Television’ image-look sound-hear|kyf\rifoHjum:

      • [N+V]Noun + [N+V]Noun = Noun

    • ‘Tong’ bamboo hand pinch 0g:vufckyf

      • [[N+N]Noun + V]Noun

  • Nominalized Clauses:

    • ‘eating is good’ [eat + onf sany] good [V+P]Noun

    • ‘[his having cooked first without going to church] onf sany - caused us to have to return home twice”

Levels of language processing

Levels of Language Processing ‘Tong’





What is ontology
What is Ontology? ‘Tong’

  • In Philosophy: “Ontologyis the theory of objects and their ties. The unfolding of ontology provides criteria for distinguishing various types of objects (concrete and abstract, existent and non-existent, real and ideal, independent and dependent) and their ties (relations, dependences and predication)”.(Raul Corazzon 2003)

  • In General: “1. A science or study of being: specifically, a branch of metaphysics relating to the nature and relations of being; a particular system according to which problems of the nature of being are investigated; first philosophy”.

  • “2. a theory concerning the kinds of entities and specifically the kinds of abstract entities that are to be admitted to a language system."(Webster’s 3rd International Dictionary )

Ontology artificial intelligence
Ontology – Artificial Intelligence ‘Tong’

  • An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization.

  • In AI: “That is, an ontology is a description (like a formal specification of a program) of the concepts and relationships that can exist for an agent or a community of agents. This definition is consistent with the usage of ontology as set-of-concept-definitions, but more general.” (Gruber 1993)

Form classes three types
Form Classes – Three types ‘Tong’

Ontological Objects

Conceptual Objects

  • Nouns

  • Verbs

  • Particles

 Things


Juxtaposition a normal formative process doubles and balanced pairs
Juxtaposition ‘Tong’— a normal formative processDoubles and Balanced Pairs

  • P + P chaining

  • N + N compounding

  • V + V compound and chaining

Rules of nominal formation

N + N  Nominal ‘Tong’

N + V  Nominal

N + P  Nominal

Positional Phrase

Rules of Nominal Formation

Grammatical Construction

Ontological Construction

  • Compound Noun

  • Clause

Types of nominals
Types of Nominals ‘Tong’

  • Conceptual Nominal

  • Thing

  • Ontological Nominal

  • Form

  • Grammatical Nominal

  • Function Class

  • Semantic Nominal

  • Lexical Class

Ontological nominal is not the same as grammatical nominal
Ontological Nominal is not the same as Grammatical Nominal ‘Tong’

Ontological nominals (objects, concepts, or other entities) are:

  • abstract units that exist as linguistic entities via boundary features

  • perceptual and posited by the language itself

  • manifest by cognitive operations such as blending and conceptual integration as well as word formation processes

Key to understanding nominalization is onf sany
Key to Understanding Nominalization is ‘Tong’onf sany

  • Nominalizes Sentences

    • (Sentence final particle)

  • Nominalizes Clauses

    • (Relative and Attribute Clauses)

  • Nominal Topicalizer

  • Sentence



    Grammatical Nominalization

    Burmese head final grammar
    Burmese: Head-Final Grammar ‘Tong’

    • SOV

      • Verb final

      • postposition particle final

    • Final is the Head

    Modifier head configuration
    Modifier + Head Configuration ‘Tong’

    • Asymmetrical Relations of Figure and Ground

      Ground + Figure Absolutive vs.

      Figure + Ground Transitive

    • Modifier + Head

      • N + N

      • N + V

      • N/V + P

      • V + V

    Topic marker onf sany
    Topic Marker ‘Tong’onf sany

    Nominal template formal burmese realis
    Nominal Template ‘Tong’ – Formal Burmese (realis)

    Nominal template formal burmese irrealis
    Nominal Template ‘Tong’– Formal Burmese (irrealis)

    Nominal template colloquial burmese realis
    Nominal Template ‘Tong’ – Colloquial Burmese (realis)

    Nominal template colloquial burmese irrealis
    Nominal Template ‘Tong’ – Colloquial Burmese (irrealis)

    Application of the rules of ontological formation
    Application of the Rules of Ontological Formation ‘Tong’

    • N+N  N

    • N+V  N

    • N/V +P  N


    Formation process
    Formation Process ‘Tong’

    Ontological constructions

    WORD ‘Tong’



    Simple and Complex Words, Phrases, Nominalized Clauses

    Clause or Particle Phrase

    Sentence, Section, Text

    Ontological Constructions

    Three Types

    Ontological word one sentence part 1
    Ontological WORD ‘Tong’ One sentence Part 1

    Ontological word one sentence part 2
    Ontological WORD ‘Tong’ One sentence Part 2

    Ontological word one sentence part 3
    Ontological WORD ‘Tong’ One sentence Part 3

    Ontological sentence text structure
    Ontological SENTENCE (Text) Structure ‘Tong’

    • Structural Overview of one Expository Text

    • Topical Sections of Text - onf sany marked

    Expository text ground figure relations
    Expository Text ‘Tong’ – Ground- Figure Relations

    [ Ground Figure ][ Ground Figure ]

    [ Ground ][ Figure ]

    [ Ground ][Figure]

    Ontological sentence text
    Ontological SENTENCE (Text) ‘Tong’

    Particle u ka. Agent/Source marks Sections of Text

    • Structure of a Narrative Text

    Narrative headedness figure ground relations
    Narrative Headedness ‘Tong’ Figure-Ground Relations

    Reverse of Expository Text Ground - Figure Relations

    Particle u ka sentence 1
    Particle ‘Tong’uka. Sentence 1

    Narrative action line and offline distribution of u ka


    Narrative Action Line and Offline – distribution of u ka.

    Ontological nominalization the structure of abstract objects that form
    Ontological Nominalization ‘Tong’The Structure of Abstract Objects that form:

    • Word

    • Expressions

    • Sentences

    (N+N) (V+V)

    (N+V) (N + P)

    (Word with Observer)

    Advantages to ontological analysis versus only grammatical or semantic
    Advantages to Ontological Analysis versus only Grammatical or Semantic

    • Consistent and simple method of analysis that describes the organization of Word to Text, with same conceptual processes and rules of formation.

    • Separates Ontological from Semantic and Grammatical and leaves those differences for different constraints.

    • Explains predominance of nominals and why they are used as major constituents.

    Further advantages
    Further Advantages or Semantic

    • Recognizes Burmese pattern preference for Doublets, Juxtapositioning, Balanced sets.

    • Recognizes Headedness and the way this is manifest in information structure via Ground – Figure gestalt.

    Further advantages1
    Further Advantages or Semantic

    • Recognizes the role of the Observer in

      • The Sentence and Text

      • The nature of nominals themselves

      • Provides the base forms for word constituency relations in complex units.

    • Analysis recognizes cultural values

      • balance and harmony

      • distance of the observer from the phenomena; Buddhist detachment

    Burmese proverb
    Burmese Proverb or Semantic

    t|Sif \rifh. u^efwifh

    a-hrang mrang. kwyan tang.

    master high slave comely

    As the master’s position is exalted,

    the servant’s conduct becomes decorous.

    The beginning
    THE BEGINNING or Semantic

    Of Natural Sound

    Burmese primers demonstration of ontological forms used in literacy

    Burmese Primers or Semantic— Demonstration of Ontological Forms used in Literacy

    Ontological Word

    Literacy with word level units
    Literacy with WORD Level Units or Semantic

    • Simple Words of One Syllable

      • Inherent Vowel and Tone, Teaching only Consonant e.g. u ka. ‘dance’

      • One symbol = Burmese Syllable / Word

      • Juxtaposition of Balanced Set = Ontological Nominals

      • Simple Ontological Nominals of [N+N],

        • [N+ V] or [V+V]

    Kindergarten primer juxtaposition balanced pairs
    Kindergarten or SemanticPrimerJuxtaposition,Balanced Pairs

    First story kindergarten stories based on the ontological nominal unit
    First story or SemanticKindergartenStories based on the Ontological Nominal Unit

    First grade primer
    First Grade Primer or Semantic

    • Pedagogical wisdom begins with simple and build to complex sentences.

    • Complex yet balanced units structure natural Burmese text. The length and complexity of the sentence is not significantly difficult because ontological nominals create ease.

    • One text of two sentences.

    • First sentence is 2 ontological units long.

    • Second sentence consists of 31 ontological units.

    End of Orthographic Sentence or Semantic

    Second sentence consists of 31 ontological units.

    Natural text
    Natural text or Semantic

    No Word Space Normally in Burmese

    But ‘Phrase’ space is not really optional

    The same natural text marked indicating particles
    The Same Natural Text Marked Indicating Particles or Semantic

    ‘Phrase’ space following Particles

    Less natural text nt romans 11 23
    Less Natural Text or Semantic-NT Romans 11:23

    Ontological nominals
    Ontological Nominals or Semantic

    • Naturally used in Literacy

    • Structure complex sentences – even for newly literates, making meaningful units that can ‘stand alone’.

    • Naturally marked in text with phrase space to aid in chunking the sub-sentential units.