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Announcements. 4th test is finished! Please pick up graded work Homework 12 due Monday (requires internet use) Second project is due in two weeks Please reread lyrics to Monty Python galaxy song; document the inconsistency for a free Milky Way bar!. Galaxies. 17 November 2006. Today :.

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Announcements

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Announcements

Announcements

  • 4th test is finished!

  • Please pick up graded work

  • Homework 12 due Monday (requires internet use)

  • Second project is due in two weeks

  • Please reread lyrics to Monty Python galaxy song; document the inconsistency for a free Milky Way bar!


Galaxies

Galaxies

17 November 2006


Today

Today:

  • The “spiral nebulae”

  • Measuring distances to galaxies

  • Rotation rates and “dark matter”


Messier catalog

Messier Catalog

  • 27 “open” clusters

  • 29 globular clusters

  • 6 diffuse nebulae

  • 4 planetary nebulae

  • 1 supernova remnant

  • 2 small groups of stars

  • 40 other fuzzy things in which no individual stars are visible


The discovery of spiral structure

The Discovery of Spiral Structure

Lord Rosse, 1845


What are the spiral and elliptical nebulae

What are the spiral and elliptical nebulae?

  • No individual stars are visible, even in largest telescopes

  • Some have spiral structure, as if spinning rapidly

  • Visible amount of rotation over a few decades?

  • Continuous spectra

  • Hypothesis 1: Swirling clouds of fluid, possibly forming new solar systems

  • Hypothesis 2: “Island universes,” similar to our own Milky Way star system


Island universes confirmed

Island Universes Confirmed!

Edwin Hubble discovers Cepheid variable stars in the Andromeda Nebula, 1923

Estimated distance: 1 million light-years (actually 2 million)

Edwin Hubble, 1889 - 1953


Finding the andromeda galaxy

Finding the Andromeda Galaxy


Finding the andromeda galaxy1

Finding the Andromeda Galaxy


Finding the andromeda galaxy2

Finding the Andromeda Galaxy


Finding the andromeda galaxy3

Finding the Andromeda Galaxy


The andromeda galaxy

The Andromeda Galaxy


The andromeda galaxy1

The Andromeda Galaxy


The andromeda galaxy2

The Andromeda Galaxy


The magellanic clouds

The Magellanic Clouds


Hubble space telescope can detect cepheids out to 60 million light years virgo cluster

Hubble Space Telescope can detect Cepheids out to 60 million light-years (Virgo Cluster)


Virgo cluster

Virgo Cluster


Ngc 253

NGC 253


Whirlpool galaxy m51

Whirlpool Galaxy (M51)


Announcements

M83


M104 sombrero galaxy

M104 (Sombrero Galaxy)


Edge on galaxies

Edge-on galaxies


Barred spiral galaxies

Barred spiral galaxies


Colliding galaxies

Colliding Galaxies


Galaxy with dust lane

Galaxy with dust lane


Group of galaxies in leo

Group of galaxies in Leo


Beyond 50 million light years the best standard candles are type i supernovas

Beyond 50 million light-years, the best standard candles are type-I supernovas


Coma cluster

Coma Cluster


Coma cluster1

Coma Cluster


Hubble deep field

Hubble Deep Field


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