Why transportation trends in istanbul are not sustainable
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WHY TRANSPORTATION TRENDS IN ISTANBUL ARE NOT SUSTAINABLE ?. Haluk GERÇEK (PhD) Istanbul Technical University Istanbul, Turkey. Population: 12 M Area : 5,343 km2 Number of municipal districts : 32 Number of motor vehicles : 2.4 M (20% of Turkey) Number of automobiles : 1.6 M

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WHY TRANSPORTATION TRENDS IN ISTANBUL ARE NOT SUSTAINABLE ?

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Why transportation trends in istanbul are not sustainable

WHY TRANSPORTATION TRENDS IN ISTANBUL ARE NOT SUSTAINABLE ?

Haluk GERÇEK (PhD)

Istanbul Technical University

Istanbul, Turkey.


Basic data about istanbul

  • Population: 12 M

  • Area : 5,343 km2

  • Number of municipal districts : 32

  • Number of motor vehicles : 2.4 M (20% of Turkey)

  • Number of automobiles : 1.6 M

  • (28% of Turkey)

  • Auto ownership : 134 cars per 1000 inhabitants

  • GDP per capita : $ 3,063 (2001)

BASIC DATA ABOUT ISTANBUL


Rapid increase of motor vehicles

RAPID INCREASE OF MOTOR VEHICLES


Population growth

Annual Growth Rates:

1950-1970 : 4.9%

1970-1990 : 4.5%

1990-2000 : 3.2%

POPULATION GROWTH


Population density 2005

POPULATION DENSITY (2005)

  • Average : 2,200 inhhabitants/km2


Work place density 2005

WORK PLACE DENSITY (2005)


Modal split

MODAL SPLIT


Rail transit system in istanbul

RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ISTANBUL

LinesLength (Km)

  • Existing12 125.2

  • Under construction

    - GMI 7 72.3

    - MoT 1 13.6

  • Projects being prepared 8 109.7

  • Planned15 187.0

  • TOTAL43 507.8


Existing rail transit system

EXISTING RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEM

Taksim-4.Levent/ METRO

Length : 8.5 km

Daily Traffic : 160,000

Istiklal Street / TRAM

Length : 1.6 km

Daily Traffic : 5,000

Eyüp-Piyer Loti/ CHAIRLIFT

Length : 0.42 km

Daily Traffic :2,100

Taksim-Kabataş/ FUNICULER

Length : 0.64 km

Daily Traffic : 14,000

Aksaray-Otogar-Havaalanı/LRT

Length : 19.3 km

Daily Traffic : 200,000

Eminönü-Karaköy-Kabataş/ TRAM

Length : 2.9km

Daily Traffic: 45,000

Zeytinburnu-Güngören-Bağcılar/ TRAM

Length : 5.5 km

Daily Traffic : 26,000

Karaköy-Şişhane/ FUNICULAR

Length : 0.6 km

Daily Traffic : 13,000

Sirkeci-Halkalı/ CR (TCDD)

Length : 27.6 km

Daily Traffic : 75,000

Eminönü-Zeytinburnu/ TRAM

Length : 11.2 km

Daily Traffic: 143,500

Kadıköy-Moda/ TRAM

Length : 2.6 km

Daily Traffic : 5,000

Haluk Gerçek, Istanbul Transportation: Problems and Challenges, June 2007, Istanbul

H.Paşa-Gebze/ CR (TCDD)

Length : 44.7 km

Daily Traffic: 80,000


Rail projects under construction gmi

RAIL PROJECTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION (GMI)

Edirnekapı-Sultançiftliği/ TRAM

Length: 15.3 km

Estimated Cost : $140 M

Otogar-Bağcılar/ LRT

Length : 5.4 km

Estimated Cost: $173 M

4.Levent-Seyrantepe-Ayazağa -Darüşşafaka/METRO

Length : 8 km

Estimated Cost: $250 M

Bağcılar-M.Bey-İkitelli Olympic Village / METRO

Length : 16 km

Estimated Cost: $800 M

BOSPHORUS TUNNEL-MARMARAY

Length :13,5 km

Kadıköy-Kartal/ METRO

Length : 21,7 km

Estimated Cost: $1.1 B

Aksaray-Yenikapı/ LRT

Length : 0.7 km

Estimated Cost : $56 M

Taksim-Yenikapı/ METRO

Length : 5.2 km

Estimated Cost : $364 M

Haluk Gerçek, Istanbul Transportation: Problems and Challenges, June 2007, Istanbul


Bosporus railway tunnel marmaray project

BOSPORUS RAILWAY TUNNEL(MARMARAY) PROJECT

  • 76.3 km

  • 13.6 km tunnel (1.4 km immersed tube tunnel)

  • 40 stations

  • Capacity: 75,000 pphpd


3 legged stool of sustainability

“3 Legged Stool” of SUSTAINABILITY

Environmental Sustainability

Social Sustainability

Economic Sustainability


Transport objectives and their contribution to sustainability

Transport Objectives and Their Contribution to SUSTAINABILITY

ECMT Report on Sustainable Transport Policy (2000)

EC DG Environment’s Guidance on Sustainable Urban Transport Plans (2005)


Which objectives are most important

Which Objectives Are Most Important ?

  • There can be tensions between objectives

  • Priorities differ accross the countries and cities

  • Maintaining a balance among objectives is not easy and tradeoffs are necessary

  • Therefore, for each city / country

    • Set the “right” priorites

    • Pursue policies which support the higher priority objectives ( a package of consistent policies & instruments)


A long term or immediate focus

A Long-Term or Immediate Focus ?

  • Give sufficient emphasis to longer term impacts

  • (Reducing GHG, increasing equity between generations, avoiding resource depletion)

  • Others objectives affect today’s citizens and require for immediate action

  • Given 4-5 year life of a government, policy makers focus on current needs and overlook longer term problems


Policy instruments ecmt reports

POLICY INSTRUMENTS (ECMT Reports)


How well do policies use both demand side and supply side measures

How Well Do Policies Use Both Demand-Side and Supply-Side Measures ?


Large road projects

LARGE ROAD PROJECTS

  • Projects faced opposition from professional organizations and NGOs

  • - Urban road tunnels (156 km,

  • $2 B)

  • - 3rd Bosporus Bridge and beltways ($2 B)

  • - Road tunnel under Bosporus ($1.6 B)

  • - Flyovers (126 built)


Municipalty budget for transportation

MUNICIPALTY BUDGET FOR TRANSPORTATION

  • In 2001-2007 period,

  • - $ 1.93 B spent on road projects

  • - $ 3.45 B spent on rail projects

  • In 2007,

  • - GMI will spend $ 2.94 billion (53.5% of its total annual budget) on transportation projects.

  • Up to 2012,

  • - $ 15 B is required for transportation projects

  • - GMI is planning to allocate $ 5.8 B.

  • - $ 2 B is required for 156-km road tunnels.


Decision making in transportation

DECISION MAKING in TRANSPORTATION

  • Who puts the projects ?

  • Who evaluates ?

  • Who decides ?

  • Who puts money ?

  • Transparent decision making is necessary

  • There is a credibility gap between public and politicians


Travel time min

TRAVEL TIME (min)

  • Hyper -congestion at low level of car ownership


Emissions in turkey 2004

EMISSIONS in TURKEY (2004)

  • Turkey’s total GHG emissions = 296.6 Mt CO2 equivalent (81.8 % is CO2)

  • Transportation CO2 = 40,5 Mt ( 12 % of total CO2, increased by 55.8 % between 1990 and 2004)

  • Road Transport CO2 = 34 Mt (84 % of transport sector)

Source: 1st National Comunication on Climate Change, Report of Turkey, 2007.


3rd bridge project

3rd BRIDGE PROJECT

  • Forests and wetland area of 800 ha

  • is estimated

  • to be demaged.


Successes

SUCCESSES

  • Rail transit improvements

  • Sea transport improvements (Sea buses, ferries)

  • Fare integration by electronic tickets (Akbil)

  • Extended budgets allocated to urban transport projects

  • Increasing interest in environmental issues through news in media


Failures

FAILURES

  • Uncontrolled population growth and urban sprawl

  • Lack of integration of land-use, transportation, environmental and economic development plans

  • Barriers to implementation of plans

  • (finacial, legal & institutional, political & cultural, technological)

  • Hyper-Congestion at untolerable levels

  • Lack of public awareness

  • Lack of transparent & accountable decision-making process


Why transportation trends in istanbul are not sustainable

SOLUTION for SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

  • Integrate land-use, transportation and environmental planning

  • Improve and

  • integrate public transport modes

  • Improve NMT

  • Develop reserved routes for PT


Why transportation trends in istanbul are not sustainable

SOLUTION for SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

  • Reduce and rationalize the use of cars, more specifically in the city centers by TDM.

  • (Congestion pricing, parking pricing and management, traffic calming, regulatory measures)

  • Set targets (Reduce CO2 by 30 % by 2012)


Why transportation trends in istanbul are not sustainable

A DIFFERENT WAY OF THINKING

  • There is an urgent need for a change in the way we think about

  • transportation

  • (paradigm shifts)

  • Sustainable transportation requires fundemental changes in our transportation planning practices.


Why transportation trends in istanbul are not sustainable

THANK YOU...[email protected]


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