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INTRODUCCIÓN AL DISEÑO CURRICULAR 6º AÑO ESCUELA SECUNDARIA Inglés. Dirección de Capacitación Provincia de Buenos Aires Capacitador ETR Oscar Marino 2012. Initial Task Complete the first two columns of the KWL chart for “evaluación”. To be checked. TASK 1
6º AÑO ESCUELA SECUNDARIA
Dirección de Capacitación
Provincia de Buenos Aires
Complete the first two columns of the KWL chart for “evaluación”
To be checked
Bearing in mind one of your secondary school classes from last year (it could be a 5th year class), write CAN DO descriptors for this particular class, in the areas of reading, writing, speaking, listening, critical thinking.
First work individually and then form groups with your colleagues to compare your descriptors.
Now, write the descriptors for the 6th Year based on the Curriculum Design guidelines and your expectations for the course.
Then read the “Objetivos de aprendizaje para 6º año” in the Currículum Design and compare the descriptors you wrote.
Adapted from Anderson and Krathwohl (2000). A Taxonomy of Learning
(forlearning, aslearning, oflearning)
It is traditional to talk about tests being used for one of five different purposes:
However, there are many other reasons for testing, including motivating learners to study.
Reflect upon the reasons why you give tests in to your own students. Make a list of the reasons.
Think about your own teaching and learning context. Make a list of those things that you do because a test is going to be given. Or if it makes the task easier, make a list of the things you wouldn’t do if the test was not there.
Once you have your list, go through and put a √ against each item that you think is a positive effect induced by the act of testing, and a X against each item that you think is a negative effect.
Assessment for learning is designed to give teachers information to modify
and differentiate teaching and learning activities. It acknowledges that
individual students learn in idiosyncratic ways, but it also recognizes that
there are predictable patterns and pathways that many students follow. It
requires careful design on the part of teachers so that they use the resulting
information to determine not only what students know, but also to gain
insights into how, when, and whether students apply what they know.
Teachers can also use this information to streamline and target instruction
and resources, and to provide feedback to students to help them advance their learning.
Assessment for learning occurs throughout the learning process. It is
designed to make each student’s understanding visible, so that teachers can
decide what they can do to help students progress. Students learn in
individual and idiosyncratic ways, yet, at the same time, there are
predictable patterns of connections and preconceptions that some students
may experience as they move along the continuum from emergent to
proficient. In assessment for learning, teachers use assessment as an
investigative tool to find out as much as they can about what their
students know and can do, and what confusions, preconceptions, or
gaps they might have.
The wide variety of information that teachers collect about their students’
learning processes provides the basis for determining what they need to do next
to move student learning forward. It provides the basis for providing descriptive
feedback for students and deciding on groupings, instructional strategies, and
ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING
Think about an example of assessment forlearning in your own teaching and discuss it with your colleagues.
Assessment as learning is a process of developing and supporting
metacognition for students. Assessment as learning focusses on the role of
the student as the critical connector between assessment and learning. When
students are active, engaged, and critical assessors, they make sense of
information, relate it to prior knowledge, and use it for new learning. This is
the regulatory process in metacognition. It occurs when students monitor
their own learning and use the feedback from this monitoring to make
adjustments, adaptations, and even major changes in what they understand.
It requires that teachers help students develop, practise, and become
comfortable with reflection, and with a critical analysis of their own learning.
Assessment as learning focusses on students and emphasizes assessment as a
process of metacognition (knowledge of one’s own thought processes) for
students. Assessment as learning emerges from the idea that learning is not
just a matter of transferring ideas from someone who is knowledgeable to
someone who is not, but is an active process of cognitive restructuring that
occurs when individuals interact with new ideas. Within this view of
learning, students are the critical connectors between assessment and
learning. For students to be actively engaged in creating their own
understanding, they must learn to be critical assessors who make sense of
information, relate it to prior knowledge, and use it for new learning. This
is the regulatory process in metacognition; that is, students become adept
at personally monitoring what they are learning, and use what they
discover from the monitoring to make adjustments, adaptations, and even major
changes in their thinking.
Assessment as learning is based in research about how learning happens, and is characterized by students reflecting on their own learning and making adjustments so that they achieve deeper understanding. P. Afflerbach (2002) notes (in the context of reading assessment):
Knowledge of Cognition
• knowledge about ourselves as learners and what influences our performance
• knowledge about learning strategies
• knowledge about when and why to use a strategy
Regulation of Cognition
• planning: setting goals and activating relevant background knowledge
• regulation: monitoring and self-testing
• evaluation: appraising the products and regulatory processes of learning
(Adapted from Brown, “Metacognition, Executive Control, Self-Regulation, and Other More
• What is the purpose of learning these concepts and skills?
• What do I know about this topic?
• What strategies do I know that will help me learn this?
• Am I understanding these concepts?
• What are the criteria for improving my work?
• Have I accomplished the goals I set for myself?
(Adapted from Schraw, “Promoting General Metacognitive Awareness”)
ASSESSMENT AS LEARNING
Think about an example of assessment as learning in your own teaching and how it has influenced your teaching and students´ learning.
Assessment of learning is summative in nature and is used to confirm what students know and can do, to demonstrate whether they have achieved the curriculum outcomes, and, occasionally, to show how they are placed in relation to others. Teachers concentrate on ensuring that they have used assessment to provide accurate and sound statements of students’ proficiency, so that the recipients of the information can use the information
to make reasonable and defensible decisions.
Assessment of learning refers to strategies designed to confirm what
students know, demonstrate whether or not they have met curriculum
outcomes or the goals of their individualized programs, or to certify
proficiency and make decisions about students’ future programs or
placements. It is designed to provide evidence of achievement to parents,
other educators, the students themselves, and sometimes to outside
groups (e.g., employers, other educational institutions).
Assessment of learning is the assessment that becomes public and results in statements or symbols about how well students are learning. It often contributes to pivotal decisions that will affect
students’ futures. It is important, then, that the underlying logic and measurement of assessment of learning be credible and defensible.
ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING
Read the following example of assessment of learning (the questions the teacher asked and answer himself to help him plan the assessment.
Then in a small group, analyse the assessment task in Appendix 1 (“Take a last look” pp. 54-56 in Text) and answer the same questions presented in the example/ in the grid below.
See handout ”Take a last look”
A) Read the following summary of assessment principles in CLIL from Coyle, Hood and Marsh (2010). Highlight key words.
Clear learning objectives are needed before an assessment focus can be chosen. Learning objectives/ outcomes should use a format which acknowledges the different areas of learning in the classroom (such as the 4Cs approach) –this usually include content/skills first, then language in some form. In a CLIL classroom there are likely to be more possible angles of assessment at any one point because of the integrative nature of content and language. Therefore, even more than in first-language lessons, we cannot always assess everything.
We should use a mixture of formal and informal assessment which is both task-based and assignment-based, and a mix of specific test times and classwork sampling.
We should familiarize the learners with the assessment measures and success criteria, expressed in a student-friendly format.
Content knowledge should be assessed using the simplest form of language which is appropriate for that purpose.
Language should be assessed for a real purpose in a real context –sometimes this will be for form/accuracy, sometimes for communicative competence and/or fluency.
If the assessment is orally based, “wait time” is crucial, as in CLIL contexts we should be asking students to think, and thinking takes time and the expression of that thinking takes longer.
Scaffolding is not “cheating” –we need to assess what students can do with support before we assess what they can do without it.
Students need to be able to take some responsibility for their own assessment, both in terms of self- and peer-assessment. This will enhance their longer-term learning potential.
B) Now, analyze the projects/ units designed by three teachers teaching in the Province of Buenos Aires bearing in mind the three types of assessment and the summary of assessment principles discussed in this meeting. What and how would you assess students in these projects? (Theplansweretheoutcome of thecourse “Estrategias didácticas en la clase de inglés en el ciclo superior de la escuela secundaria”)
As we have previously read, one of the principles for assessment in CLIL is that “clear learning objectives are needed before an assessment focus can be chosen. Learning objectives/ outcomes should use a format which acknowledges the different areas of learning in the classroom (such as the 4Cs approach)
Analyze the unit plan format for planning a CLIL unit. (Appendix 2)
In small groups, agree on a learning unit to plan using the CLIL approach. Groups can be formed by teachers of the same specialism (orientación)
Draft you first project for 6th year in secondary school.
Plan a CLIL unit for the project following the 4Cs approach. Consider the bibliography for this and the information in the Curriculum Design (section “Objetivos de la enseñanza”
Algunos de los principios básicosde enseñanza de la puesta en marcha del enfoque de AICLE que proponemos en el presente diseño curricular son los siguientes:
La enseñanza deberá combinar los siguientes elementos:
Contenido: que permita progresar en el conocimiento, las destrezas y la comprensión de los temas específicos de una o varias materias determinadas
Comunicación: el uso de la lengua para aprender mientras se aprende a usar la lengua misma
Cognición: que implica el desarrollo de las destrezas cognitivas que enlazan la formación de conceptos (abstractos y concretos), los conocimientos y la lengua
Cultura: que permite la exposición a perspectivas variadas y a conocimientos compartidos que nos hagan más conscientes de el otro y de uno mismo.
La enseñanza centrada en el alumnodeberápromover su compromiso con la tarea de aprender en cooperación con el docente negociando los temas y tareas, utilizando ejemplos y situaciones reales, realizando trabajo por proyectos, etc.
La enseñanza deberá ser flexible atendiendo a los distintos estilos de aprendizaje y facilitadora de la comprensión y producción del contenido que sirve como contexto de aprendizaje.
La enseñanza estará orientada a promover el aprendizaje interactivo y autónomo a través del trabajo en pares y grupal, actividades que involucren la negociación de significados y desarrollen el trabajo de investigación.
ASSESSING AND TEACHING
Bibliography for the 2nd meeting:
-Diseño Curricular de 6º año Escuela Secundaria. Provincia de Buenos Aires.
-Fulcher, G. (2010) Chapter 10 “Testing and teaching” in Practical Language Testing. London: Hodder Education.
Read the following excerpt by Glenn Flucher (2010) and discuss to what extent tests influence your teaching and your students´ learning:
“Teachers… have to respond to the demands made by testing regimes and students´ desire to pass tests. It is therefore about evaluating the impact that test use may have on teaching and learning, in the broadest sense. The effects of the use of language tests are measure of the meaning of the test in practice. If the test has been well designed, with its purpose and effect in mind, we might expect to see many positive effects …”
In the section on washback, Fulcher (2010) quotes Messick (1996) who says that “washback refers to the extent to which the introduction and use of a test influences language teachers and learners to do things that they would not otherwise do that promote or inhibit language learning”.
Alderson and Wall (1993) set out a number of questions that they referred to as “washback hypotheses”. The most important of these are listed below. A test will influence:
Discuss how washback links the assessment you use and your teaching. What type of washback
would you expect your tests/ assessment to have? Refer to Fulcher (2010), section on washback (pp. 277-282)
PLANNING TASK 2
Unit planning has already started, now continues with writing the assessment section of the CLIL unit. To do this task, re-read the can-do descriptors you wrote in the first meeting and refer to the sections “Objetivos de aprendizajepara 6º año” y “Evaluación” in the Curriculum Design)
TASKS AND ASSESSMENT
Bibliography for this meeting:
-Diseño Curricular de 6º año Escuela Secundaria. Provincia de Buenos Aires.
-Fulcher, G. (2010) Chapter 4 “Deciding what to test” in Practical Language Testing. London: Hodder Education.
-Skehan, P (2001) Chapter 8 “Tasks and language performance assessment” in Bygate, M; Skehan, P and M. Swain (eds.) Researching Pedagogic Tasks –Second Language Learning, Teaching and Testing. England: Pearson Education Limited.
-Chalhoub-Deville, M. (2001) Chapter 10 “Task-based assessments: Characteristics and validity evidence” in Bygate, M; Skehan, P and M. Swain (eds.) Researching Pedagogic Tasks –Second language Learning, Teaching and Testing. England: Pearson Education Limited
-Candlin, C. (2001) “Afterword: Taking the Curriculum to Task” in Bygate, M; Skehan, P and M. Swain (eds.) Researching Pedagogic Tasks –Second Language Learning, Teaching and Testing. England: Pearson Education Limited