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The Scholastics. The Scholastics. Where?. The Scholastics. Where? The universities “scholastics” – in the schools. The Scholastics. Where? The universities -- Especially the Sorbonne (the University of Paris). The Scholastics. Who?. The Scholastics. Who? Peter Lombard (1105-1160).

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the scholastics2

The Scholastics

Where?The universities

“scholastics” – in the schools

the scholastics3

The Scholastics

Where? The universities --

Especially the Sorbonne (the University of Paris)

the scholastics5

The Scholastics

Who?Peter Lombard (1105-1160)

the scholastics6

The Scholastics

Who?Peter Lombard (1105-1160)

His book: The Sentences

the scholastics7

The Scholastics

Who?Peter Lombard (1105-1160)

His book: The Sentences

Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

the scholastics8

The Scholastics

Who?Peter Lombard (1105-1160)

His book: The Sentences

Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

His book: Summa Theologia

the scholastics9

The Scholastics

Who?Peter Lombard (1105-1160)

Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

Duns Scotus (1265-1308)

the scholastics10

The Scholastics

Sources of truth?

the scholastics11

The Scholastics

Sources of truth?

Bible

the scholastics12

The Scholastics

Sources of truth?

Bible

Tradition (Church Fathers)

the scholastics13

The Scholastics

Sources of truth?

Bible

Tradition (Church Fathers)

ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC)

the scholastics15

The Scholastics

Goal?

To use Scripture and logic to make sense of God, man, and the world.

the scholastics17

The Scholastics

Method?

Reason and dialectic

the scholastics18

The Scholastics

The Way of Salvation

the scholastics19

The Scholastics

The Way of Salvation

“The death of Christ then justifies us, when by it love is awakened in our hearts." (Peter Lombard)

the humanists1

The Humanists

Where?

Royal courts.

the humanists3

The Humanists

Who?

Dante, Petrarch (early, Italian)

the humanists4

The Humanists

Who?

Dante, Petrarch (early, Italian)

Erasmus, Reuchlin (late, continental)

the humanists5

The Humanists

Source of truth?

the humanists6

The Humanists

Source of truth?

Back to the Sources!!

the humanists7

The Humanists

Source of truth?

Back to the Sources!!

The Bible

the humanists8

The Humanists

Source of truth?

Back to the Sources!!

The Bible

Classical (Greek and Latin) authors

the humanists10

The Humanists

Goal?

To get rid of myths, traditions, and silly Scholastic arguments, and get back to basic Christianity.

the humanists11

The Humanists

Goal?

To get rid of myths, traditions, and silly Scholastic arguments, and get back to basic Christianity.

i.e., MORALITY & ETHICS.

the humanists12

The Humanists

Method?

Language and literature study

the humanists13

The Humanists

Way of Salvation

Do your best, and grace will “kick in.”

the humanists14

The Humanists

Way of Salvation

Do your best, and grace will “kick in.”

(But righteous pagans are in heaven!)

the mystics2

The Mystics

Who?

Meister Eckhardt (1260-1327)

the mystics3

The Mystics

Who?

Meister Eckhardt (1260-1327)

John Tauler (1300-1361)

the mystics5

The Mystics

Where?

Monasteries.

the mystics6

The Mystics

Where?

Monasteries,

though some were wandering preachers.

the mystics7

The Mystics

Sources of truth?

Bible

the mystics8

The Mystics

Sources of truth?

Bible

Tradition

the mystics9

The Mystics

Sources of truth?

Bible

Tradition

Direct illumination

the mystics11

The Mystics

Goal?

A direct, unmediated experience of God.

the mystics13

The Mystics

Method?

Private prayer and contemplation.

the mystics14

The Mystics

Way of Salvation

the mystics15

The Mystics

Way of Salvation

Through a mystical experience, the soul is absorbed into the Divine.

the common people

The Common People

Who? Where?

Everybody, all over the place. That’s why we call them common people. Why do you ask such ridiculous questions? Huh?

the common people1

The Common People

Sources of truth

the common people2

The Common People

Sources of truth

The Bible (though many can’t read)

the common people3

The Common People

Sources of truth

The Bible (though many can’t read)

The Church

The Sunday service (liturgy, preaching)

the common people4

The Common People

Sources of truth

The Bible (though many can’t read)

The Church

Traditions, holidays, legends about saints, etc.

the common people5

The Common People

Goal

Survival.

the common people6

The Common People

Goal & method

Survival. Let the professionals (priests, monks, and nuns) take care of religion for you. Just do what they tell you and don’t worry about it.

the common people7

The Common People

Way of Salvation

If you do your part, God will do his.

scholastic humanist or mystic

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

Third, it [theology] proceeds to the contemplation of truth in questions of Sacred Scripture; and to this purpose the method should be that of arguments.

scholastic humanist or mystic1

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

Third, it [theology] proceeds to the contemplation of truth in questions of Sacred Scripture; and to this purpose the method should be that of arguments.

Scholastic (Thomas Aquinas)

scholastic humanist or mystic2

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

When we turn away from ourselves and from all created things, to that extent we are united and sanctified in the soul\'s spark, which is untouched by either space or time. This spark is opposed to all creatures and desires nothing but God.

scholastic humanist or mystic3

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

When we turn away from ourselves and from all created things, to that extent we are united and sanctified in the soul\'s spark, which is untouched by either space or time. This spark is opposed to all creatures and desires nothing but God.

Mystic (Meister Eckhart)

scholastic humanist or mystic4

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

I have turned my entire attention to Greek. The first thing I shall do, as soon as the money arrives, is to buy some Greek authors; after that, I shall buy clothes.

scholastic humanist or mystic5

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

I have turned my entire attention to Greek. The first thing I shall do, as soon as the money arrives, is to buy some Greek authors; after that, I shall buy clothes.

Humanist (Erasmus)

scholastic humanist or mystic6

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

Blessedness consists primarily in the fact that the soul sees God in herself.

scholastic humanist or mystic7

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

Blessedness consists primarily in the fact that the soul sees God in herself.

Mystic (Meister Eckhart)

scholastic humanist or mystic8

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

It is an unscrupulous intellect that does not pay to antiquity its due reverence.

scholastic humanist or mystic9

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

It is an unscrupulous intellect that does not pay to antiquity its due reverence.

Humanist (Erasmus)

scholastic humanist or mystic10

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

God ordained human nature to attain the end of eternal life not by its own strength, but by the help of grace, and in this way its act can be deserving of eternal life.

scholastic humanist or mystic11

Scholastic, Humanist, or Mystic?

God ordained human nature to attain the end of eternal life not by its own strength, but by the help of grace, and in this way its act can be deserving of eternal life.

Scholastic (Thomas Aquinas)