Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 40

memory and learning PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 72 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded. Nelson Cowan Candice C. Morey Angela M. AuBuchon Christopher E. Zwilling Amanda L. Gilchrist (2010). memory and learning. martin @ s pecken .nl. 1: For 1.0 seconds - Fixation. Attend to … (‘classroom’).

Download Presentation

memory and learning

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Memory and learning

Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded

Nelson Cowan

Candice C. Morey

Angela M. AuBuchon

Christopher E. Zwilling

Amanda L. Gilchrist

(2010)

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

1: For 1.0 seconds - Fixation

Attend to … (‘classroom’)

circles

triangles

both equal

(‘boys’)

(‘girls’)

(‘boys + girls’)

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

2: For 0.5 seconds - Remember color + location

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

3: For 1.5 seconds - Retention interval

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

4: Probe display - Type 1 = No change

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

4: Probe display - Type 2 = Location change

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

4: Probe display - Type 3 = New color

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

4: Probe display - Type 4 = Other shape’s color

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Previous studies

  • Whenchildrengetoldertheirvisualworkingmemoryincreases. Why?

visualworkingmemory

youngerchildren

olderchildren

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Hypothesis

  • Youngerchildren are lessable to exclude irrelevant items fromworkingmemory to make room for relevant items.

workingmemory

workingmemory

Youngerchildren

workingmemory

workingmemory

Olderchildren

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

An impression of the speed. Ready?

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

The method 1/5

college students18+

grades 6 + 7

12 – 13 years old

grades 1 + 2

7 – 8 years old

30 participants

30 participants

30 participants

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

The method 2/5

10 possible circles, 10 possible triangles, both in 10 colors

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

The method 3/5

8.19 cm

8.19 cm

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

The method 4/5, Trial condition 1-shape

Probe: 50% no-change

Probe: 25% location-change

Probe: 25% new-color

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

The method 4/5, Trial condition 100%

Array: 50% attended shape, 50% other shape

Probe: Always the attended shape, 50% no-change, the rest divided: location-change/other color/new color

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

The method 4/5, Trial condition 80% / 20%

Same as the 100% condition, except

Probe: 20% is the shape that had to be ignored

Probe: 40% no change

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

The method 4/5, Trial condition 50% / 50%

  • Probe:

    • 50% in location of a circle in the array

    • 50% in location of a triangle in the array

    • Change/No-change distribution as in 100% condition

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Expected capacities A: Same working memory +better filtering in group 2

2 - More-advancedgroup

Proportion correct

1 - Less-advancedgroup

Usually-testedshape

Not-usually-testedshape

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Expected capacities B: More working memory ingroup 2 + same filtering

2 - More-advancedgroup

Proportion correct

1 - Less-advancedgroup

Usually-testedshape

Not-usually-testedshape

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Expected capacities C: More working memory ingroup 2 + better filtering in group 2

2 - More-advancedgroup

Proportion correct

1 - Less-advancedgroup

Usually-testedshape

Not-usually-testedshape

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Results 1/7, 1-shape condition

k = No. array objects in working memory

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Results 2/7, 1-shape condition

Clear effect groups > peak > decline

age 7-8

age 12-13

age 18+

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Results 3/7 – 2 or 3 objects:

Attention young children is adult-like?

YES

NO

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Results 4/7 – 2 or 3 objects:

Significant interaction attention <-> age?

NO

YES

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Results 5/7 – 2 objects:

Large difference working memory depend on attention?

NO

NO

YES

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Results 6/7

Compared with expectations

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Results 7/7

Young children filter out items as well as older?

YES

NO

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Nestor question

Katja:

“It is mentionedthatworkingmemorycapacityincreasesduringelementary school, I wonder ifthismeansthat the neural basis develops, orifit is ratherdue to learninghow to filter informationwhen a lot of otherinformation are present in workingmemory?”

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

What do you think?

  • Wouldyoungchildrenbeable to attendexperimentslikethis?

    • Whatwoulditbelike?

    • Howcan we do this?

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Thanks for your attention

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Additional info

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Additional info

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Additional info

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Additional info

Bunge & Wright: “A growingliteratureindicatesthatincreasedrecruitment of task-related areas in frontal, parietal and striatalregionsunderliesimprovements in workingmemory and cognitivecontrol over the course of middlechildhood and adolescence.”

memory and learning

[email protected]


Memory and learning

Additional info

Informationonhow to participateyoungchildren in experiments

memory and learning

[email protected]


  • Login