Plant Growth Stages
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Plant Growth Stages - Embryogenesis 胚形成 - Vegetative growth 营养生长 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Plant Growth Stages - Embryogenesis 胚形成 - Vegetative growth 营养生长 - Reproductive growth 生殖生长. Flowering Pollination Fertilization. 山茶花. Lecture 19 FLOWERING Ⅰ. Outline Basics of Flowering 开花基础 Process of Flowering 开花过程 Models for Flowering Mechanism 开花机理

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Plant Growth Stages - Embryogenesis 胚形成 - Vegetative growth 营养生长

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Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Plant Growth Stages

- Embryogenesis 胚形成

- Vegetative growth 营养生长

- Reproductive growth 生殖生长

Flowering

Pollination

Fertilization


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

山茶花

Lecture 19FLOWERING Ⅰ

Outline

Basics of Flowering 开花基础

Process of Flowering 开花过程

Models for Flowering Mechanism 开花机理

Sex Differentiation 性别分化

Sex Determination 性别决定


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Basics of Flowering

  • Plants flower at different time

- Annuals(一年生植物)

Once in a short lifetime

- Biennials (两年生植物)

Once in the 2nd year

- Perennials(多年生植物)

Once a year, every year, at maturity


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

拟南芥

reproductive shoot apical regions

vegetative shoot apical regions

Basics of Flowering

  • Flower is from the shoot apical meristem (SAM)

SAM → Floral organ


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Basics of Flowering

  • Flower is from the shoot apical meristem (SAM)

茎尖分生组织(SAM)的发育阶段

-幼年期Juvenile vegetative phase

- 成年营养期Adult vegetative phase

- 成年生殖期Adult reproductive phase


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Basics of Flowering

幼年期

成年营养期

成年生殖期

  • 相变(phase change)

  • - 从一个阶段到另一个阶段的转变

  • - 相变是一个渐变过程

  • 植物只有完成幼年期生长才能进入成年期

  • 进入成年期的植物形态稳定,具有开花的能力


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Basics of Flowering

  • SAM的生长命运

幼年期和成年营养期:

拟南芥

SAM → Shoot

Primary Growth

Vegetative Growth

vegetative shoot

apical regions


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Basics of Flowering

成年叶: 卵圆形

  • SAM的生长命运

有些植物

幼年期叶片形态

与成年期的不同。

幼年叶: 耳型

常春藤


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Basics of Flowering

  • SAM的生长命运

有些植物幼年期叶片形态与成年期的不同。

同一株胡杨树上7种叶片

胡杨幼苗


Basics of flowering

Basics of Flowering

  • 成年期植物具备开花能力

  • 成年期植物具有感受环境信号刺激、

  • 诱导开花的能力- 感应态(Compentence )

  • 感应态的植物接受外界信号诱导后,

  • 产生设想的开花刺激物,运输到SAM。

  • SAM被诱导进入成花决定态。

  • 成花决定态的SAM具备形成花分生组织的能力


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

SAM

花分生组织

Basics of Flowering

  • 成花决定态的植物在内在信号诱导下开花

开花是植物进入成年生殖期的标志


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Basics of Flowering

  • 花器官维持恒定的同心圆排列方式——轮

    Whorl

雄蕊

心皮

花瓣

花萼


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Lecture 19FLOWERING Ⅰ

Outline

Basics of Flowering 开花基础

Process of Flowering 开花过程

Models for Flowering Mechanism 开花机理

Sex Differentiation 性别分化

Sex Determination 性别决定


Process of flowering

Process of Flowering 开花过程

  • 2个阶段,共四步:

    PhaseⅠ Flower initiation

    ① floral induction/floral evocation

    成花启动

    ② floral initiation 成花开始

    PhaseⅡ Floral development

    ③ identification of organ primordia

    花原基形成

    ④ identification of organ specification

    花器官形成


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Process of Flowering 开花过程

  • PhaseⅠFlower initiation

① Floral Induction

有限生长的植物(determinate plant species)

SAM → Floral Meristem 例如,向日葵

SAM →Inflorescence Meristem 例如, 水稻


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Process of Flowering 开花过程

  • PhaseⅠFlower initiation

① Floral Induction

无限生长的植物(indeterminate plant species)

SAM的中央细胞→ SAM

SAM 的周边细胞→Lateral Inflorescence Meristem

无限生长的植物,即使到了成年生殖期,

SAM仍然会同时维持营养和生殖两种生长状态。


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Process of Flowering 开花过程

  • PhaseⅠFlower initiation

Inflorescence Meristem → Floral Meristem

Lateral Inflorescence Meristem→ Floral Meristem

② Floral Initiation 成花开始

(仅出现在有花序分生组织或侧生花序分生组织的植物)


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Process of Flowering 开花过程

  • PhaseⅡ Floral development

③ Identification of Organ Primordia 花原基形成

Floral Meristem → Primordium


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Process of Flowering 开花过程

  • PhaseⅡ Floral development

④ Identification of Organ Specification 花器官的形成

Floral Primordia →Floral Organ

花萼原基→花萼

花瓣原基→花瓣

雄蕊原→雄蕊

心皮原基→心皮→雌蕊


Models for flowering mechanism

Models for Flowering Mechanism

  • Positional Information Theory位置信息论

    (Holder N, 1979)

  • Reaction-Diffusion Theory 反应-扩散论

    (Meinhardt, 1982)

  • Biophysical Theory 生物物理论 (Green, 1988)

  • ABC model(Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991)

  • MCDK Model of Flowering

    (Martinez-Zapter et al, 1994)

Learn

by yourself


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Models for Flowering Mechanism

ABC model(Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991)

各轮花器官( whorl) 分别由3 类

同源异型基因 ( A、B、C) 决定.

A →Whorl 1 → 花萼

A+B →Whorl 2 → 花瓣

B+C →Whorl 3 → 雄蕊

C →Whorl 4 → 雌蕊


Models for flowering mechanism1

Models for Flowering Mechanism

ABC model(Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991)

C缺失,A取代C表达


Models for flowering mechanism2

Models for Flowering Mechanism

ABC model(Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991)

A缺失

C取代

B缺失

A和C代替


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Knocking

genes

Models for Flowering Mechanism

ABC model(Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991)

Knocking out of all floral organ identity genes results in

a ‘flower’ that comprises of 4 whorls of leaves!


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

附:同源异型基因Homeotic gene/ Hox gene

* 一类含同源框(一段高度保守序列)的基因

* 调控胚胎发育中器官的形成

-某基因突变,该类中的其他基因替代表达

-原来的结构被其他结构取代

-器官异位生长

Hox基因家族的存在于植物、果蝇、小鼠、人等


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Lecture 19FLOWERING Ⅰ

Outline

Basics of Flowering 开花基础

Process of Flowering 开花过程

Models for Flowering Mechanism 开花机理

Sex Differentiation 性别分化

Sex Determination 性别决定


Sex differentiation

Sex Differentiation 性别分化

  • 高等植物的性别分化的标志

    —雄蕊或雌蕊的发生


Sex differentiation1

Sex Differentiation 性别分化

  • 高等植物性别分化的特点

① 植物的性别主要表现在花器官的构造上,

无明显的第二性征。

② 动物的性别在受精卵就已决定,

植物的性别要在幼年期后决定。

③ 植物的性别分化具有不稳定性,

极易受外界环境条件的影响。

(外源激素、营养、温度、湿度、光照等)


Sex differentiation2

Sex Differentiation 性别分化

  • 高等植物性别分化的特点

④ 植物的性别分化具有多样性。

雌雄同体:大约80%的被子植物

雌雄同花同体(完全花)

雌雄异花同体

雄花两性花同株

雌花两性花同株

雌雄异体:仅开雌花或雄花的植株

其它类型


Sex differentiation3

Sex Differentiation 性别分化

  • 高等植物性别分化的特点

④ 植物的性别分化具有多样性。

举例——黄瓜

-完全花株:两性花

-雌株

-雄株

-雌雄异花同株:大部分

-雌全同株:同一植株上有雌花和两性花

-雄全同株:同一植株上有雄花和两性花

-雌雄全同株:同一植株上有雄花、雌花、两性花


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Lecture 19FLOWERING Ⅰ

Outline

Basics of Flowering 开花基础

Process of Flowering 开花过程

Models for Flowering Mechanism 开花机理

Sex Differentiation 性别分化

Sex Determination 性别决定


Sex determination

Sex Determination 性别决定

  • 染色体决定性别

  • 基因决定性别

  • 激素对性别决定的调控

  • 环境对性别决定的影响


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Sex Determination 性别决定

  • 染色体决定性别

- 高等植物中,只有少数种类含有性染色体。

- 性染色体:带有性别决定基因

并异型于常染色体

- 性染色体类型

XY型

XO 型

ZW 型

金露梅


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Sex Determination 性别决定

  • 染色体决定性别

XY型

高等植物:

X和Y是最大的一对

且Y 比X 大得多


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Sex Determination 性别决定

  • 染色体决定性别

XY型

—依赖于Y 活性区

白麦瓶草 2n=(24,XY),雄性

2n=(24,XX),雌性

Y 染色体上的活性区:

- 雄性活化区

- 雌性抑制区

- 雄性育性区

其余区段X、Y同源


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Sex Determination 性别决定

  • 染色体决定性别

XY型

—取决于X和Y的比

酸模(Rumex acefosa)

雌株:1 8A+XX+Y,X:Y=2:1

雄株:18A+X+YY,X:Y=1:2


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Sex Determination 性别决定

  • 染色体决定性别

(autosome)

XY型

—依赖于X 染色体与常染色体比值

啤酒花

X∶A≤0.5 ,雄株

X∶A > 0.5,雌株

果蝇

X∶A ≥ 1.00  雌性

X∶A ≤ 0.50  雄性

X∶A = 0.50~1.00间性、不育


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Sex Determination 性别决定

  • 基因决定性别

大部分植物无性染色体,

靠常染色体上的某些基因决定性别。


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Sex Determination 性别决定

  • 基因决定性别

玉米

黄瓜


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Sex Determination 性别决定

  • 激素对性别决定的调控

- 不同植物影响性别决定的激素种类不尽相同。

- 同一激素对不同植物的性别决定影响各异。

IAA 促使雌雄异株植物的雄株→雌株

ETH促进黄瓜雌花发育

外源植物激素几乎不影响白麦瓶草性别


Sex determination1

Sex Determination 性别决定

  • 环境对性别决定的调控

To learn by yourself


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Adult

vegetative

phase

Adult

reproductive

phase

Juvenile

phase

SAM营养生长 SAM →Shoot

Summary

  • 植物生长发育过程中SAM经历以下相变:

幼年期

成年营养期

成年生殖期

SAM

生殖生长: SAM→Floral Meristem

营养生长: SAM →Shoot


Process of flowering1

Process of Flowering 开花过程

Summary

PhaseⅠ Flower initiation

① floral induction/floral evocation

SAM→FM

SAM→IM(LIM)

② floral initiation: IM(LIM) → FM

PhaseⅡ Floral development

③ identification of organ primordia

FM → Organ primordium

④ identification of organ specification

Organ primordium →Floral organ


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Summary

Models for Flowering Mechanism

ABC model (Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991)

花器官的形成

是同源异型基因

表达的结果


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Summary

  • 植物的性别决定

  • 染色体决定性别

  • 基因决定性别

  • 激素对性别决定的调控

  • 环境对性别决定的影响

XY型,XO型,ZW型


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

Summary

  • 高等植物的性别分化

① 性别主要表现在花器官的构造上,

无明显的第二性征。

② 在幼年期后决定

③ 不稳定,极易受外界条件影响.

④ 多样性


Plant growth stages embryogenesis vegetative growth

THANKS


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