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Chapter 3 – Methods for Recording Target Behaviors. Ps534 Dr. Ken Reeve Caldwell College Post-Bac Program in ABA. Reminder…. We need to MEASURE changes in a behavior before we can infer that a technique or procedure was effective

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Chapter 3 methods for recording target behaviors

Chapter 3 – Methods for Recording Target Behaviors

Ps534

Dr. Ken Reeve

Caldwell College

Post-Bac Program in ABA


Reminder
Reminder…

  • We need to MEASURE changes in a behavior before we can infer that a technique or procedure was effective

  • Behaviors MUST be observable or they cannot be viewed as objective

  • If not recorded by a machine, we need at LEAST two observers to determine accuracy of behavior measurement


Reminder1
Reminder…

  • For any behavior, we can measure

    • How often does it occur?

    • How quickly?

    • How intense?

    • How long does it last?

    • What is its latency?

    • When does it occur?

    • Etc.

      Only SOME of these may be important for any target behavior.


Where to start
Where to start?

  • ANECDOTAL RECORDING (or ABC RECORDING)

  • Somewhat like a more rigorous CASE STUDY

  • Used to informally determine the antecedents, behavior, and consequences for a given client or learner

  • Gives the researcher a chance to identify possible variables to manipulate


What next
What next?

  • Once you’ve formalized your questions about what behavior to study and its relationship to a given intervention technique, you are now ready to record “real” data

  • Can use EVENT-BASED or TIME-BASED recording techniques, depending on the behavior in question…


Recording sheets
Recording Sheets

  • Student’s name

  • Date or dates of observation

  • Observer name and role

  • Start and end time

  • Setting of observation

  • Definition of behavior being observed

  • Key to any codes used


Event based data recording 1 frequency
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 1. FREQUENCY

  • Need to define what constitutes an occurrence of behavior

  • Is a simple SUM of the total times behavior occurs in a given observation session

  • Observation sessions must be the same duration. Why?

  • Generally used when behavior is free to occur at any time (called FREE OPERANT CONDITION)



Side issue inter observer agreement ioa
SIDE ISSUE: INTER-OBSERVER AGREEMENT (IOA)

  • This is degree to which what one observer sees is the same as what another observer sees

  • It is a measure that allows us to either trust or not trust the data collected as being accurate

  • Calculated as


Event based data recording 2 rate
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 2. RATE

  • Is frequency of the behavior as a function of a specific time period

  • # of responses PER minute, hour, day, week, etc.

  • Observation sessions can now be different durations in length. Why?

    # of responses = 10 = .5/min.

    Length of observation 20 mins.


Event based data recording 3 percent correct
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 3. PERCENT CORRECT

  • Need to define what constitutes correct or incorrect response

  • Calculated as

    Number of correct responses x 100

    Number of correct + incorrect

  • This is best used when the number of opportunities to respond varies from day to day or from child to child. Why?


Event based data recording 4 trials to criterion
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 4. TRIALS TO CRITERION

  • Measures number of opportunities before skill is correctly emitted

  • Used as indicator of speed of learning


Event based data recording 5 cumulative record
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 5. CUMULATIVE RECORD

  • Measures a running total of occurrences of behavior across sessions

  • Used when a certain number of emitted responses is set as the criterion


Event based data recording 6 interval recording
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 6. INTERVAL RECORDING

  • Caution: this sounds like a time-based measure (AND SOME EXPERTS DO REFER TO IT AS ONE) but it is EVENT-based!

  • Used when target behavior occurs at very HIGH frequency (which makes rate measures difficult to do)

  • Interval recording is an APPROXIMATION of a rate measure (see more next…)


Event based data recording 6 interval recording1
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 6. INTERVAL RECORDING

  • 6a) WHOLE INTERVAL RECORDING

  • Generally used when a learner engages in a long and rapid “run” of a behavior that interferes with other activities

  • Researcher divides observation session into many equal length intervals (ex. 10 min. session may be divided into 60 10-sec. intervals)

  • Researcher records: did behavior “fill” the interval (marks a “+”) or not fill the interval or not occur at all (marks a “”)

  • Data presented as “% of intervals in which target behavior occurred”

  • Whole interval recording tends to underestimate frequency so keep this in mind!


Event based data recording 6 interval recording2
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 6. INTERVAL RECORDING

  • 6b) PARTIAL INTERVAL RECORDING

  • Only difference from whole interval recording is that observer notes: did behavior occur at ANY time during the interval (marks a “+”) or not at all (marks a “”)

  • Data presented as “% of intervals in which target behavior occurred”

  • Usually used if behavior occurs for shorter less intrusive durations of time



Event based data recording 6 interval recording3
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 6. INTERVAL RECORDING

  • 6c) MOMENTARY TIME SAMPLING

  • Here, observer only observes at the END of an interval (“for just a moment”) and looks to see: Is behavior occurring right now (marks a “+”) or not right now (marks a “”)

  • Data presented as “% of intervals in which target behavior occurred”

  • Usually used if behavior occurs for longer durations of time


Event based data recording 7 magnitude recording
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 7. MAGNITUDE RECORDING

  • Measures the INTENSITY of a behavior

  • Usually difficult to be very objective unless a mechanical system of some sort is used


Event based data recording 8 topography recording
EVENT-BASED DATA RECORDING: 8. TOPOGRAPHY RECORDING

  • Measures the way the response LOOKS or is moved through space

  • Why an issue? Sometimes we don’t care so much about OUTCOME of a response (like effectively pressing a button with no regard as to how) as we do correctly performing the response (using the finger to press the button as opposed to smashing the button with a fist)

  • Is it appropriate to drop-kick the light switch to turn it off?


Time based data recording 1 duration recording
TIME-BASED DATA RECORDING: 1. DURATION RECORDING

  • Records how long the behavior lasts

  • Used when we are more concerned about duration than frequency or rate

  • Ex. Exercise time, eye gaze or attending, in-seat, studying duration, etc.



Time based data recording 2 latency recording
TIME-BASED DATA RECORDING: 2. LATENCY RECORDING

  • Records how much time it takes to BEGIN a behavior since an antecedent stimulus was presented

  • Ex. Responding to a request, making an initiation to a person entering a room, etc.



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