Cognition
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7. cognition. Learning Objectives. LO 7.1Mental Images and Concepts in Thinking LO 7.2Solving Problems and Making Decisions LO 7.3Failures of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking LO 7.4The Definition of Intelligence

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Cognition

7

cognition


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • LO 7.1Mental Images and Concepts in Thinking

  • LO 7.2Solving Problems and Making Decisions

  • LO 7.3Failures of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking

  • LO 7.4The Definition of Intelligence

  • LO 7.5Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed

  • LO 7.6Intellectual Disability and Its Causes

  • LO 7.7Giftedness and Does Giftedness Guarantee Success

  • LO 7.8The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Intelligence

  • LO 7.9Language, Its Different Elements, and the Structure of Language

  • LO 7.10Language, Thinking, and Are Animals Able to Learn Language

  • LO 7.11Ways to Improve Thinking


Thinking and mental images

Thinking and Mental Images

LO 7.1 Mental Images and Concepts in Thinking

  • Thinking (cognition): mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others

  • Mental images: mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality


Concepts

Concepts

LO 7.1 Mental Images and Concepts in Thinking

  • Concepts: ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities

  • Superordinate concept: the most general form of a type of concept, such as “animal” or “fruit”

  • Basic level type: an example of a type of concept around which other similar concepts are organized, such as “dog,” “cat,” or “pear”


Concepts1

Concepts

LO 7.1 Mental Images and Concepts in Thinking

  • Subordinate concept: the most specific category of a concept, such as one’s pet dog or a pear in one’s hand

  • Formal concepts: concepts that are defined by specific rules or features

  • Natural concepts: concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world


Concepts2

Concepts

LO 7.1 Mental Images and Concepts in Thinking

  • Prototype: an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept

    • a platypus is a “fuzzy” natural concept


Concept formation

Concept Formation

  • Thus, categorizing has less to do with features that define all members of a concept and has more to do with features that characterize the typical member of a concept.

  • The most representative members of a concept are known as prototypes.


When is it a cup and when is it a bowl

When Is It a “Cup,” and When Is It a “Bowl”?


Fuzzy boundaries

Fuzzy Boundaries

  • Determine whether something belongs to a group by comparing it with the prototype.

  • Objects accepted and rejected define the boundaries of the group or concept.

  • This is different for different people.


Problem solving

Problem Solving

LO 7.2 Solving Problems and Making Decisions

  • Problem solving: process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways

  • Trial and error (mechanical solution): problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found


Problem solving1

Problem Solving

LO 7.2 Solving Problems and Making Decisions

  • Algorithms: very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems


Problem solving2

Problem Solving

LO 7.2 Solving Problems and Making Decisions

  • Heuristic: an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem; also known as a “rule of thumb”

    • representative heuristic: assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category


Problem solving3

Problem Solving

LO 7.2 Solving Problems and Making Decisions

  • Heuristic (cont’d)

    • availability heuristic: estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is to think of related examples

    • Means–end analysis: heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference


Problem solving4

Problem Solving

LO 7.2 Solving Problems and Making Decisions

  • Insight: sudden perception of a solution to a problem


Problem solving barriers

Problem-Solving Barriers

LO 7.3 Failures of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking

  • Functional fixedness: a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions

  • Mental set: the tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past


The candle problem

The Candle Problem


Problem solving barriers1

Problem-Solving Barriers

LO 7.3 Failures of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking

  • Confirmation bias: the tendency to search for evidence that fits one’s beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs


Cognition

Figure 7.2 The String ProblemHow do you tie the two strings together if you cannot reach them both at the same time?


Cognition

Figure 7.2 (continued) Solution to the String ProblemThe solution to the string problem is to use the pliers as a pendulum to swing the second string closer to you.


Cognition

Figure 7.3 The Dot ProblemCan you draw four straight lines so that they pass through all nine dots without lifting your pencil from the page and without touching any dot more than once?


Cognition

Figure 7.3 (continued) Solution to the Dot ProblemWhen people try to solve this problem, a mental set causes them to think of the dots as representing a box, and they try to draw the line while staying in the box. The only way to connect all nine dots without lifting the pencil from the paper is to draw the lines so they extend out of the box of dots—literally “thinking outside the box.”


Creativity

Creativity

LO 7.3 Failures of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking

  • Creativity: the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways

    • convergent thinking: type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic


Creativity1

Creativity

LO 7.3 Failures of Problem Solving and Creative Thinking

  • Creativity (cont’d)

    • divergent thinking: type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point (a kind of creativity)


Intelligence

Intelligence

LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence

  • Intelligence: the ability to learn from one’s experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems


Theories of intelligence

Theories of Intelligence

LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence

  • Spearman’s Theory

    • g factor: the ability to reason and solve problems; general intelligence

    • s factor: the ability to excel in certain areas; specific intelligence


Theories of intelligence1

Theories of Intelligence

LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence

  • Gardner’s Theory

    • multiple intelligences: verbal/linguistic, musical, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, movement, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist, and existential intelligence


Gardner s theory

Gardner’s Theory

LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence

  • According to Gardner, what kind of intelligence is being shown here?

Movement


Gardner s theory1

Gardner’s Theory

LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence

  • According to Gardner, what kind of intelligence is being shown here?

Albert Einstein

Logical/Mathematical


Gardner s theory2

Gardner’s Theory

LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence

  • According to Gardner, what kind of intelligence is being shown here?

Visual/Spatial


Gardner s theory3

Gardner’s Theory

LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence

  • According to Gardner, what kind of intelligence is being shown here?

Musical


Theories of intelligence2

Theories of Intelligence

LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence

  • Triarchic theory of intelligence: Sternberg’s theory that there are three kinds of intelligences: analytical, creative, and practical

    • analytical intelligence: the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving

    • creative intelligence: the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems


Theories of intelligence3

Theories of Intelligence

LO 7.4 The Definition of Intelligence

  • Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (cont’d)

    • practical intelligence: the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful


Sternberg s triarchic theory of intelligence

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence


Iq tests

IQ Tests

LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed

  • Intelligence quotient (IQ): a number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one’s mental age by one’s chronological age and then multiplying that quotient by 100

  • The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales yield an IQ score.


Table 7 5 continued simulated sample items from the wechsler adult intelligence scale wais iv

Table 7.5 (continued) Simulated Sample Items From the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV)


Iq tests1

IQ Tests

LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed

  • Wechsler Intelligence Tests yield a verbal score and a performance score, as well as an overall score of intelligence.


Development of iq tests

Development of IQ Tests

LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed

  • Standardization: the process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom the test is designed

  • Validity: the degree to which a test actually measures what it’s supposed to measure


Development of iq tests1

Development of IQ Tests

LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed

  • Reliability: the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people


Development of iq tests2

Development of IQ Tests

LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed

  • Deviation IQ scores: a type of intelligence measure that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15

    • norms


Cognition

Figure 7.4 The Normal CurveThe percentages under each section of the normal curve represent the percentage of scores falling within that section for each standard deviation (SD) from the mean. Scores on intelligence tests are typically represented by the normal curve. The dotted vertical lines each represent one standard deviation from the mean, which is always set at 100. For example, an IQ of 115 on the Wechsler represents one standard deviation above the mean, and the area under the curve indicates that 34.13 percent of the population falls between 100 and 115 on this test. Note: The figure shows the mean and standard deviation for the Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition (Stanford-Binet 4). The Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition was published in 2003 and now has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 for composite scores.


Intellectual disability

Intellectual Disability

LO 7.6 Intellectual Disability and Its Causes

  • Developmentally delayed: condition in which a person’s behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age; a more acceptable term for intellectual disability

    • Intellectual disability or developmental delay is a condition in which IQ falls below 70 and adaptive behavior is severely deficient for a person of a particular chronological age.


Intellectual disability1

Intellectual Disability

LO Intellectual Disability and Its Causes

  • The four levels of delay are:

    • mild: 55–70 IQ

    • moderate: 40–55 IQ

    • severe: 25–40 IQ

    • profound: Below 25 IQ.

  • Causes of developmental delay include deprived environments, as well as chromosome and genetic disorders and dietary deficiencies.


Giftedness

Giftedness

LO 7.7 Giftedness and Does Giftedness Guarantee Success

  • Gifted: the 2 percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above

  • Does giftedness guarantee success?


Giftedness1

Giftedness

LO 7.7 Giftedness and Does Giftedness Guarantee Success

  • Terman conducted a longitudinal study that demonstrated that gifted children grow up to be successful adults, for the most part.

    • Terman’s study has been criticized for a lack of objectivity, because he became too involved in the lives of his participants, even to the point of interfering on their behalf.


Giftedness2

Giftedness

LO 7.7 Giftedness and Does Giftedness Guarantee Success

  • Emotional intelligence: the awareness of and ability to manage one’s own emotions, as well as the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled; viewed as a powerful influence on success in life


Heredity environment and intelligence

Heredity, Environment, and Intelligence

LO 7.8 The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Intelligence

  • Stronger correlations are found between IQ scores as genetic relatedness increases.

  • Heritability of IQ is estimated at 0.50.

  • The Bell Curve: a book that made widely criticized claims about the heritability of intelligence


Racial differences in iq scores

Racial Differences in IQ Scores

Sources: Data from N. J. Mackintosh. (1998). IQ and human intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Neisser, U. (1998). The rising curve: Long-term gains in IQ and related measures. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Plant pot analogy

Plant-Pot Analogy


Cognition

Figure 7.5 Correlations Between IQ Scores of Persons With Various RelationshipsIn the graph on the left, the degree of genetic relatedness seems to determine the agreement (correlation) between IQ scores of the various comparisons. For example, identical twins, who share 100 percent of their genes, are more similar in IQ than fraternal twins, who share only about 50 percent of their genes, even when raised in the same environment.


Cognition

Figure 7.5 (continued) Correlations Between IQ Scores of Persons With Various RelationshipsIn the graph on the right, identical twins are still more similar to each other in IQ than are other types of comparisons, but being raised in the same environment increases the similarity considerably.


Language

Language

LO 7.9 Language, Its Different Elements, and the Structure of Language

  • Language: a system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others


Elements and structure of language

Elements and Structure of Language

LO 7.9 Language, Its Different Elements, and the Structure of Language

  • Grammar: the system of rules governing the structure and use a of language

  • Syntax: the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences

  • Morphemes: the smallest units of meaning within a language

    • semantics: the rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences


Elements and structure of language1

Elements and Structure of Language

LO 7.9 Language, Its Different Elements, and the Structure of Language

  • Phonemes: the basic units of sound in language

  • Pragmatics: aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others, or the social niceties of language


Language and cognition

Language and Cognition

LO 7.10 Language, Thinking, and Are Animals Able to Learn Language

  • Linguistic relativity hypothesis: the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language

  • Cognitive universalism: theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language


Animal language

Animal Language

LO 7.10 Language, Thinking, and Are Animals Able to Learn Language

  • Studies have been somewhat successful in demonstrating that animals can develop a basic kind of language, including some abstract ideas.

  • Controversy exists over the lack of evidence that animals can learn syntax, which some feel means that animals are not truly learning and using language.


Do animals use language

Do Animals Use Language?

  • Since 1930s, numerous attempts have been made to teach language to a few select species.

  • The most appropriate conclusion to draw:

    • Nonhuman species show no capacity to produce language on their own, but

    • Certain species can be taught to produce languagelike communication.


Infants born prepared to learn language

Infants Born Prepared to Learn Language

  • Language acquisition – learning vs. inborn capacities

    • Behaviorism’s language theory

      • People speak as they do because they have been reinforced for doing so.

      • Behaviorists assumed children were relatively passive.

      • The problem with this theory is that it does not fit the evidence.

      • Operant conditioning principles do not play the primary role in language development.


Infants born prepared to learn language1

Infants Born Prepared to Learn Language

  • The nativist perspective:

    • Language development proceeds according to an inborn program.

    • Language Acquisition Device (Noam Chomsky): humans are born with specialized brain structures (Language Acquisition Device) that facilitates the learning of language.

  • Interactionist perspectives:

    • Propose environmental and biological factors interact together to affect the course of language development.

    • Socialinteractionist perspective strongly influenced by Lev Vygotsky’s writings


Infants born prepared to learn language2

Infants Born Prepared to Learn Language

  • Assessing the three perspectives on language acquisition:

    • General consensus:

      • Behaviorists place too much emphasis on conditioning principles.

      • Nativists don’t give enough credit to environmental influences.

      • Interactionist approaches may offer best possible solution.


Ways to improve thinking

Ways to Improve Thinking

LO 7.11 Ways to Improve Thinking

  • Mental activities that require creativity and the use of memory abilities, such as working crossword puzzles and reading books, can help to keep the brain fit.


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