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Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention. B . V. Chernyshev * , D . M. Ramendik, I . E. Lazarev, E . S. Osokina, N . A. Novikov. National Research University Higher School of Economics Laboratory of cognitive psychophysiology Moscow, Russia.

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Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

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Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

B.V. Chernyshev*, D.M. Ramendik, I.E. Lazarev,E.S. Osokina, N.A. Novikov

National Research University Higher School of Economics

Laboratory of cognitive psychophysiology

Moscow, Russia

The study was implemented in the framework of the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics in 2011-2014.


What is temperament

What is temperament?

Temperament is a set of genetically determined and stable biological characteristics that shape various aspects of behavior and mental processes[Eysenck, 1970; Gray, 1991; Costa, & McCrae, 1995; Rusalov, 2002; Strelau et al., 2005]– thus leading to characteristic coping strategies.


What is attention

What is attention?

Attention is a mechanism to singleoutimportant signalsfrom the immense torrent of stimuli coming from the environment, analyze themandtimely respond to them.


What is attention1

What is attention?

Attention is a mechanism to singleoutimportant signalsfrom the immense torrent of stimuli coming from the environment, analyze themandtimely respond to them.

Attentional tasks involving active responses create moderately high cognitive load, require effort and thus require participants to choose strategies likely dependent upon temperament. This makes attentional tasks relevant in the search of psychophysiological markers of temperament.


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

Some relevant finding on relations between temperamentand ERPs to auditory stimuliin attentional tasks

♦ The N1 and N1-P2 amplitude are higher in introverts compared to extraverts [Stelmack, Achorn, & Michaud, 1977; Doucet, & Stelmack, 2000].

♦ The N1 peak and N1-P2 amplitude are related to Sensation Seeking and Neuroticism[Doucet, & Stelmack, 2000; Hegerl, Gallinat, & Mrowinski, 1995; Philipova, 2008].

♦ N2 amplitude is positively correlated with Anxiety[Righi, Mecacci, & Viggiano, 2009].

♦ P3 amplitude is negatively correlated with Neuroticism[Gurrera et al., 2005], although other authors found no difference [Fjell, Walhovd, Meling, & Johansen, 2005].


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

Some relevant finding on relations between temperamentand ERPs to auditory stimuliin attentional tasks

♦ Some studies reported that higher Extraversion corresponds to higher P3 amplitude[Gurrera, Salisbury, O’Donnell, Nestor, & McCarley, 2005; Philipova, 2008; Gurrera, O’Donnell, Nestor, Gainski, & McCarley, 2001; Fishman, Ng, & Bellugi, 2011; Cahill, & Polich, 1992], whereas other studies reported the opposite [Daruna, Karrer, & Rosen, 1985; Tatalović Vorkapić, 2009; Beauducel, Brocke, & Leue, 2006; Hansenne, 2000; Wilson, & Languis, 1990] or failed to find any influence of Extraversion on P3 amplitude [Camposano, Alvarez, & Lolas, 1994].

♦ P3 amplitude habituates faster in extraverts, thus making the amplitude dependent on the duration of the experiment [Ditraglia, & Polich 1991].


Hot questions

Hot questions


Hot questions1

Hot questions

♦ How many temperament dimensions actually exist?


Hot questions2

Hot questions

♦ How many temperament dimensions actually exist?

♦ Altogether more than 80 temperament dimensions were proposed.


Hot questions3

Hot questions

♦ How many temperament dimensions actually exist?

♦ Altogether more than 80 temperament dimensions were proposed.

♦ Questionnaires may probe 2 to 16 dimensions at a time.


Hot questions4

Hot questions

♦ How many temperament dimensions actually exist?

♦ Altogether more than 80 temperament dimensions were proposed.

♦ Questionnaires may probe 2 to 16 dimensions at a time.

♦ Can it be that we still do not know the “true” temperament dimensions, and we actually use projections of this multidimensional space onto more or less arbitrary axes?


Hot questions5

Hot questions

♦ How many temperament dimensions actually exist?

♦ Altogether more than 80 temperament dimensions were proposed.

♦ Questionnaires may probe 2 to 16 dimensions at a time.

♦ Can it be that we still do not know the “true” temperament dimensions, and we actually use projections of this multidimensional space onto more or less arbitrary axes?

♦ Can it be that the number of temperament dimensions is much grater than currently known?


Hot questions6

Hot questions


Hot questions7

Hot questions

♦ Currently many temperament dimension were traced to particular genes coding particular proteins involved in neuromodulatory systems: serotonin - anxiety, dopamine – sensation-seeking and extraversion, etc. [reviewed in Ebstein, 2006; Munafò, Flint, 2011]


Hot questions8

Hot questions

♦ Currently many temperament dimension were traced to particular genes coding particular proteins involved in neuromodulatory systems: serotonin - anxiety, dopamine – sensation-seeking and extraversion, etc. [reviewed in Ebstein, 2006; Munafò, Flint, 2011]

♦ Taking into account, that there are at least hundreds of proteins involved in neuromodulator synthesis, transportation, release, detection by receptors, reuptake and breakdown, there potentially might be hundreds of temperament dimensions in such physiological/biochemical aspect [Munafò, Flint, 2011].


Hot questions9

Hot questions

♦ Currently many temperament dimension were traced to particular genes coding particular proteins involved in neuromodulatory systems: serotonin - anxiety, dopamine – sensation-seeking and extraversion, etc. [reviewed in Ebstein, 2006; Munafò, Flint, 2011]

♦ Taking into account, that there are at least hundreds of proteins involved in neuromodulator synthesis, transportation, release, detection by receptors, reuptake and breakdown, there potentially might be hundreds of temperament dimensions in such physiological/biochemical aspect [Munafò, Flint, 2011].

♦ Important analogy: In psychophysical studying of olfaction,5 to 12 basic smells were proposed by various authors….Genetical methods revealed about 1000[Buck, Axel, 1991].


Hot questions10

Hot questions


Hot questions11

Hot questions

♦ Phenotype may significantly override genetical predispositions, resulting in less variation, because individuals develop certain coping strategies and expectations, and there are not so many general strategies that can be used in real life.


Hot questions12

Hot questions

♦ Phenotype may significantly override genetical predispositions, resulting in less variation, because individuals develop certain coping strategies and expectations, and there are not so many general strategies that can be used in real life.

♦ Self-regulation related to attentional networks was proposed [Posner, Rothbart, 1998, 2000].


Hot questions13

Hot questions

♦ Phenotype may significantly override genetical predispositions, resulting in less variation, because individuals develop certain coping strategies and expectations, and there are not so many general strategies that can be used in real life.

♦ Self-regulation related to attentional networks was proposed [Posner, Rothbart, 1998, 2000].

♦ Can it be that temperament dimensions form clusters of related dimensions as a result of trial-and-error learning to use specific coping strategies? This would allow using small numbers of dimensions in description of temperament.


Hot questions14

Hot questions

♦ Phenotype may significantly override genetical predispositions, resulting in less variation, because individuals develop certain coping strategies and expectations, and there are not so many general strategies that can be used in real life.

♦ Self-regulation related to attentional networks was proposed [Posner, Rothbart, 1998, 2000].

♦ Can it be that temperament dimensions form clusters of related dimensions as a result of trial-and-error learning to use specific coping strategies? This would allow using small numbers of dimensions in description of temperament.

♦ Naturally occurring clustering would invoke strong correlations between certain dimensions. For example, extraversion is known to have strong positive correlations with the Strength Excitation and Mobility in the Pavlovian theory of temperament [Strelau et al., 2005].


Discordant patterns of temperament

Discordant patterns of temperament


Discordant patterns of temperament1

Discordant patterns of temperament

♦ Can it be that some individuals fail to form such coherent patterns of strategies, expectations and self-awareness through experience?


Discordant patterns of temperament2

Discordant patterns of temperament

  • ♦ Can it be that some individuals fail to form such coherent patterns of strategies, expectations and self-awareness through experience?

  • ♦ Dina M. Ramendik, member of our research group, proposed that a subpopulation of people with discordant patterns of temperament dimensions may be detected in the following way [Ramendik, 2008; Chernyshev et al., 2010; Ramendik, 2011]:


Discordant patterns of temperament3

Discordant patterns of temperament

  • ♦ Can it be that some individuals fail to form such coherent patterns of strategies, expectations and self-awareness through experience?

  • ♦ Dina M. Ramendik, member of our research group, proposed that a subpopulation of people with discordant patterns of temperament dimensions may be detected in the following way [Ramendik, 2008; Chernyshev et al., 2010; Ramendik, 2011]:

  • several questionnaires need to be used simultaneously


Discordant patterns of temperament4

Discordant patterns of temperament

  • ♦ Can it be that some individuals fail to form such coherent patterns of strategies, expectations and self-awareness through experience?

  • ♦ Dina M. Ramendik, member of our research group, proposed that a subpopulation of people with discordant patterns of temperament dimensions may be detected in the following way [Ramendik, 2008; Chernyshev et al., 2010; Ramendik, 2011]:

  • several questionnaires need to be used simultaneously

  • questionnaires should be based on significantly different theoretical grounds, but at least some dimensions should be strongly correlated between questionnaires.


Discordant patterns of temperament5

Discordant patterns of temperament

  • ♦ Can it be that some individuals fail to form such coherent patterns of strategies, expectations and self-awareness through experience?

  • ♦ Dina M. Ramendik, member of our research group, proposed that a subpopulation of people with discordant patterns of temperament dimensions may be detected in the following way [Ramendik, 2008; Chernyshev et al., 2010; Ramendik, 2011]:

  • several questionnaires need to be used simultaneously

  • questionnaires should be based on significantly different theoretical grounds, but at least some dimensions should be strongly correlated between questionnaires.

  • minor differences in questionnaires may produce reversal of correlational patterns within some individuals, thus uncovering the discordant pattern of temperamental traits in them.


The causes of discordance may presumably include the following

The causes of discordance may presumably include the following:


The causes of discordance may presumably include the following1

The causes of discordance may presumably include the following:

  • - Strong environmental pressure making people use coping strategies contradicting those they would naturally develop in free trial-and-error conditions. For example, very oppressive traditional or religious families me make an extraverted person behave and feel introverted.


The causes of discordance may presumably include the following2

The causes of discordance may presumably include the following:

  • - Strong environmental pressure making people use coping strategies contradicting those they would naturally develop in free trial-and-error conditions. For example, very oppressive traditional or religious families me make an extraverted person behave and feel introverted.

  • Inborn high reactivity may lead to anxiety. In most people this anxiety dissipates with time, but it prevents normal communication with pears and causes some kind of learned helplessness in sociability. Thus the questionnaires may falsely detect such people as introverts, while other dimensions would show that the person might actually be a hidden extravert.


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

♦ Longitudinal study has shown that discordant individuals are much less successful in education and carrier, and this factor is more important than IQ and a number of other intellect and attention measures [Ramendik, 2011; Ramendik, Chernyshev, Chernysheva, 2014].

Ramendik, Chernyshev, Chernysheva, 2014. Voprosy psihologii, 2014, 3,105-117


Pavlovian approach to temperament

Pavlovian approach to temperament

The Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS) [Strelau, 1999]:


Pavlovian approach to temperament1

Pavlovian approach to temperament

  • The Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS) [Strelau, 1999]:

  • Intensity dimensions:

  • Strength of Excitation (the ability to endure arousing environmental influences; α = .82),

  • Strength of Inhibition (the ability to endure inhibiting environmental influences; α = .84),


Pavlovian approach to temperament2

Pavlovian approach to temperament

  • The Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS) [Strelau, 1999]:

  • Intensity dimensions:

  • Strength of Excitation (the ability to endure arousing environmental influences; α = .82),

  • Strength of Inhibition (the ability to endure inhibiting environmental influences; α = .84),

  • Temporal dimension:

  • - Mobility of Nervous Processes (the speed of alteration of excitation and inhibition processes; α = .81).


Pavlovian approach to temperament3

Pavlovian approach to temperament

The Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ) [Rusalov, 1990, 2002].


Pavlovian approach to temperament4

Pavlovian approach to temperament

  • The Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ) [Rusalov, 1990, 2002].

  • Intensity dimensions:

  • Object-related Ergonicity (the disposition to perform mental and physical work; α = .83),

  • Social Ergonicity (the disposition to be involved in social activity; α = .76),


Pavlovian approach to temperament5

Pavlovian approach to temperament

  • The Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ) [Rusalov, 1990, 2002].

  • Intensity dimensions:

  • Object-related Ergonicity (the disposition to perform mental and physical work; α = .83),

  • Social Ergonicity (the disposition to be involved in social activity; α = .76),

  • Temporal dimensions:

  • Object-related Plasticity (the ease of switching from one object-related activity to another; α = .77),

  • Social Plasticity (the ease of entering in social contacts and the diversity of communicative programs; α = .72),

  • Object-related Tempo (the speed of mental operations and motor acts in the process of object-related activity; α = .80),

  • Social Tempo (the speed of mental operations and motor acts in the process of communication; α = .73),


Pavlovian approach to temperament6

Pavlovian approach to temperament

  • The Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ) [Rusalov, 1990, 2002].

  • Intensity dimensions:

  • Object-related Ergonicity (the disposition to perform mental and physical work; α = .83),

  • Social Ergonicity (the disposition to be involved in social activity; α = .76),

  • Temporal dimensions:

  • Object-related Plasticity (the ease of switching from one object-related activity to another; α = .77),

  • Social Plasticity (the ease of entering in social contacts and the diversity of communicative programs; α = .72),

  • Object-related Tempo (the speed of mental operations and motor acts in the process of object-related activity; α = .80),

  • Social Tempo (the speed of mental operations and motor acts in the process of communication; α = .73),

  • Emotionality dimensions:

  • Object-related Emotionality (the emotional sensitivity to discrepancies between anticipated and real results of object-related activity; α = .84),

  • Social Emotionality (the emotional sensitivity to failures in communication; α = .71).


Study 1

Study 1

Aims:

- To find psychophysiological evidence that Extraversion is not a unitary dimension

- To find psychophysiological markers distinguishing individuals with the discordant structure of temperament

Chernyshev, Lazarev, Chernysheva, 2013. Psychology & Neuroscience, V.6, No 3, p. 235-245

Ramendik, Chernyshev, Chernysheva, 2014. Voprosy psihologii, 2014, 3, 105-117


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

Questionnaires:

- EPI (Eysenck Personality Inventory)[Eysenck, 1982; Shmelyov, 2002]

- PTS (Pavlovian Temperament Survey) [Strelau, 1999]

- STQ (Structure of Temperament Questionnaire) [Rusalov, 1990, 2002]


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

S2, S2, S1, S2, S2, S2, S2, S1, S2, S2, S2, S1, S2, S1, S2…

Modification of the oddballparadigm (Sutton et al., 1965)


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

S2, S2, S1, S2, S2, S2, S2, S1, S2, S2, S2, S1, S2, S1, S2…

Modification of the oddballparadigm (Sutton et al., 1965)

Deviants 1050 Hz, standards 1000 Hz, 40 ms (including 10 ms rise and fall), 85 dB, probability 1:4, ISI 2,500 ± 500 ms

15 pericentral electrodes (F3, Fz, F4, Fc3, Fcz, Fc4, C3, Cz, C4, Cp3, Cpz, Cp4, P3, Pz, P4).

Statistics: general linear model, and Spearman correlation. For statistical validization bootstrapping and jackknifing procedures were used.


Grand averaged erps n 30

-

10

N1

-

5

N2

0

Potential, μV

5

P2

P3

10

0

-

200

200

400

600

Time, ms

Grand-averaged ERPs (N=30)


The higher extraversion the smaller n1 p2 amplitude f 1 28 8 80 p 006 r 053 p 003

high Extraversion

low Extraversion

-

10

-

5

Potential, μV

0

5

10

200

0

200

400

600

-

Time, ms

N1-P2 amplitude (uV)

Extraversion

35

30

25

N1-P2 amplitude (uV)

20

15

10

5

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Extraversion

The higher Extraversion, the smaller N1-P2 amplitude(F(1,28)=8.80, p=.006, R=-053, p=.003).

This finding is in line with several reports [Stelmack, Achorn, & Michaud, 1977; Doucet, & Stelmack, 2000].


The higher mobility the smaller n1 p2 amplitude f 1 28 8 50 p 007 r 44 p 02

high Mobility of nervous processes

low Mobility of nervous processes

10

-

-

5

Potential, μV

0

5

10

200

0

200

400

600

-

N1-P2 amplitude (uV)

Mobility of nervous processes

35

30

25

N1-P2 amplitude (uV)

20

15

10

5

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

Mobility of nervous processes

The higher Mobility, the smaller N1-P2 amplitude(F(1,28)=8.50, p=.007, R=-.44, p=.02).

Time, ms


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

N1 amplitude (uV)

N1 amplitude (uV)

Extraversion

Mobility of nervous processes

0

0

-5

-5

N1 amplitude (uV)

-10

-10

N1 amplitude (uV)

-15

-15

-20

-20

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

Extraversion

Mobility of nervous processes

Extraversion and Mobility of nervous process was also similarly related to N1 amplitude(F(1,28)=4.96, p=.03, R=.46, p=.01) and(F(1,28)=6.50, p=.02, R=.37, p=.04)


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

N1 amplitude (uV)

N1 amplitude (uV)

Extraversion

Mobility of nervous processes

0

0

-5

-5

N1 amplitude (uV)

-10

-10

N1 amplitude (uV)

-15

-15

-20

-20

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

Extraversion

Mobility of nervous processes

Extraversion and Mobility of nervous process was also similarly related to N1 amplitude(F(1,28)=4.96, p=.03, R=.46, p=.01) and(F(1,28)=6.50, p=.02, R=.37, p=.04)

Thus, the higher Extraversion and Mobility,the less N1 and N1-P2 amplitude


The higher extraversion the shorter latency of n2 f 1 28 6 93 p 01 r 46 p 0 1

high Extraversion

low Extraversion

-

10

-

5

Potential, μV

0

5

10

200

0

200

400

600

-

Time, ms

N2 latency (ms)

Extraversion

350

300

N2 latecy (ms)

250

200

150

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Extraversion

The higher Extraversion, the shorter latency of N2(F(1,28)=6.93, p=.01, R=-.46, p=.01)


The higher social ergonicity the shorter latency of n2 f 1 28 12 40 p 001 r 55 p 001

high social-related ergonicity

low social-related ergonicity

-

10

-

5

0

Potential, μV

5

10

-

200

0

200

400

600

Time, ms

N2 latency (ms)

Social-related ergonicity

350

300

N2 latecy (ms)

250

200

150

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

Social-related ergonicity

The higher Social Ergonicity, the shorter latency ofN2(F(1,28)=12.40, p=.001, R=-.55, p=.001)

Thus, the higherExtraversion and Social Ergonicitythe shorter latency of N2


Interim summary 1

Interim summary 1


Interim summary 11

Interim summary 1

♦ We found that Extraversion was related to different ERP parameters, each time in complex with another dimension. Together with Mobility of Nervous Processes, Extraversion was related to the amplitude of the N1-P2 complex. Together with Social Ergonicity, Extraversion was related to N2 latency.


Interim summary 12

Interim summary 1

♦ We found that Extraversion was related to different ERP parameters, each time in complex with another dimension. Together with Mobility of Nervous Processes, Extraversion was related to the amplitude of the N1-P2 complex. Together with Social Ergonicity, Extraversion was related to N2 latency.

♦ Thus, Extraversion manifests itself in two different ways – both as a temporal dimension and as an intensity dimension of temperament. This finding is in line with the data showing that Extraversion combines both intensity and temporal aspects of temperament [Strelau et al., 2005; Ilyin, 2004; Golubeva, 2005; Beauducel et al., 2006].


Interim summary 13

Interim summary 1

♦ We found that Extraversion was related to different ERP parameters, each time in complex with another dimension. Together with Mobility of Nervous Processes, Extraversion was related to the amplitude of the N1-P2 complex. Together with Social Ergonicity, Extraversion was related to N2 latency.

♦ Thus, Extraversion manifests itself in two different ways – both as a temporal dimension and as an intensity dimension of temperament. This finding is in line with the data showing that Extraversion combines both intensity and temporal aspects of temperament [Strelau et al., 2005; Ilyin, 2004; Golubeva, 2005; Beauducel et al., 2006].

♦ Temporal aspect: Supposedly smaller amplitude of N1-P2 и N1 reflects less resources involved in preattentional stages of perception, thus allowing to divide resources between greater number of potential targets of attention. This makes attentional system more effective in finding targets and switching to them – leading to higher Extraversion and higher Mobility


Interim summary 14

Interim summary 1

♦ We found that Extraversion was related to different ERP parameters, each time in complex with another dimension. Together with Mobility of Nervous Processes, Extraversion was related to the amplitude of the N1-P2 complex. Together with Social Ergonicity, Extraversion was related to N2 latency.

♦ Thus, Extraversion manifests itself in two different ways – both as a temporal dimension and as an intensity dimension of temperament. This finding is in line with the data showing that Extraversion combines both intensity and temporal aspects of temperament [Strelau et al., 2005; Ilyin, 2004; Golubeva, 2005; Beauducel et al., 2006].

♦ Temporal aspect: Supposedly smaller amplitude of N1-P2 и N1 reflects less resources involved in preattentional stages of perception, thus allowing to divide resources between greater number of potential targets of attention. This makes attentional system more effective in finding targets and switching to them – leading to higher Extraversion and higher Mobility

♦ Intensity aspect: faster N2 may mean faster involvement of cognitive control [Folstein, Van, 2008; Steinhauser, Eichele et al., 2012], leading again to higher Extraversion and higher Ergonicity.


Measurement of concordance

Measurement of concordance

The participants were divided into two groups: “concordant” and “discordant” depending upon the compatibility of temperament profiles for the three questionnaires [Ramendik, 2008; 2011].


Measurement of concordance1

Measurement of concordance

The participants were divided into two groups: “concordant” and “discordant” depending upon the compatibility of temperament profiles for the three questionnaires [Ramendik, 2008; 2011].

For the analysis mean values (М) ofa dimension and its dispersion (δ) were taken from the original validation papers[Eysenck, Eysenck, 1985; Rusalov, 1990; Strelau et al., 1999].

Experimentally measured values were thus classified as low (less then М-δ), medium (within М±δ), and high (greater then М+δ). Within the known correlational ties reported by questionnaire authors, the results for each participant were evaluated pairwise as compatible (same or near correspondence) or incompatible (opposite groups).

For “concordant” participants all measures were in agreement with known correlations, for discordant participants at least one measure contradicted known correlations.


In concordant group n 16 amplitude of n2 p3 higher then in discordant group n 14 f 1 28 11 79 p 002

-

15

-

10

-

5

Potential, μV

0

5

Fcz

10

“discordant"

“concordant"

15

-

200

0

200

400

600

Time, ms

In concordant group (N=16) amplitude of N2-P3 higher,then in discordant group(N=14)(F(1,28)=11.79, p=.002)


Interim summary 2

Interim summary 2


Interim summary 21

Interim summary 2

♦ We found that concordant and discordant groups manifested ERP difference that can not be explained through any single dimension, and thus the distinction of concordant/discordant structures of temperament is a separate phenomenon.


Interim summary 22

Interim summary 2

♦ We found that concordant and discordant groups manifested ERP difference that can not be explained through any single dimension, and thus the distinction of concordant/discordant structures of temperament is a separate phenomenon.

♦ Lower N2-P3 amplitude may mean poorer cognitive control and/or attention in discordant individuals.


Study 2

Study 2

  • Aims:

  • To find the psychophysiological precursors of spontaneous attention errors

  • To find psychophysiological markers distinguishing individuals with the discordant structure of temperament

Partially data on errors published in: Lazarev, Bryzgalov, Osokina, Vyazovtseva, Antonenko, Arkhipova, Chernyshev. Zhurnal Vyss Nervn Deyatelnosti, 64, 3, 292-303.


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

Questionnaires:

- EPI (Eysenck Personality Inventory)[Eysenck, 1982; Shmelyov, 2002]

- PTS (Pavlovian Temperament Survey) [Strelau, 1999]

- NEO-FFI [Costa, McCrae, 1995; Orel, Senin, 2008].


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

Questionnaires:

- EPI (Eysenck Personality Inventory)[Eysenck, 1982; Shmelyov, 2002]

- PTS (Pavlovian Temperament Survey) [Strelau, 1999]

- NEO-FFI [Costa, McCrae, 1995; Orel, Senin, 2008].

Groups: Concordant (N=44), Discordant (N=7)


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

Correlation matrix between personality dimensions (N=70). In color are shown significant correlations (p<.001):

blue – negative, pink - positive


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

Modification of a condensation task (Posner, 1964)

Four auditory stimuli, each characterized with two features (pitch and noisiness), and the following response contingencies in the experimental task:


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

HP,LP,LN,HN,LP,HP,HN,LP,LN,HP…

Modification of a condensation task (Posner, 1964)

Four auditory stimuli, each characterized with two features (pitch and noisiness), and the following response contingencies in the experimental task:


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

HP,LP,LN,HN,LP,HP,HN,LP,LN,HP…

Modification of a condensation task (Posner, 1964)

Four auditory stimuli, each characterized with two features (pitch and noisiness), and the following response contingencies in the experimental task:

Low 500 Hz, high 2000 Hz, 40 ms (including 10 ms rise and fall), 95 dB,probability 1:1:1:1, ISI 2,500 ± 500 ms


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

P2 is greater for errors compared to correct responses

(N = 52, F(1, 51) = 24.516, p < .0001)

Difference map (correct-error)


Interim summary 3

Interim summary 3

♦ We found that errors are preceded by increased P2 amplitude.

♦ This may be the consequence of the primary task loosing competition for attentional resources to some covert activity.


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

Discordant participants committed more errors than concordant ones

F(1, 73)=4.2382, p=.04


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

If concordance is not accounted in the analysis, N1 amplitude does not differ between errors and correct responses(F(1, 51)=2.901, p=.09).


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

If concordance is not accounted in the analysis, N1 amplitude does not differ between errors and correct responses(F(1, 51)=2.901, p=.09).

When concordance is included into the analysis, significant are

- N1 amplitude(F(1, 49)=9.076, p=.004)

- interaction N1 amplitude x concordance(F(1, 49)=6.477, p=.014)


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

If concordance is not accounted in the analysis, P2 latency does not differ between errors and correct responses(F(1, 51)=0.0128, p=.9).


Individual differences in electrophysiological correlates of auditory attention

If concordance is not accounted in the analysis, P2 latency does not differ between errors and correct responses(F(1, 51)=0.0128, p=.9).

When concordance is included into the analysis, significant is interaction P2 latency x concordance(F(1, 49)=5.553, p=.02)


Interim summary 4

Interim summary 4


Interim summary 41

Interim summary 4

♦ Again, discordant group proved to be distinguishable from the concordant group.


Interim summary 42

Interim summary 4

♦ Again, discordant group proved to be distinguishable from the concordant group.

♦ Apparently, discordant individuals achieve correct responses by investing more effort/resources. Still they can not constantly keep this high level of effort, and by occasionally loosing this level of effort they commit errors.


Interim summary 43

Interim summary 4

♦ Again, discordant group proved to be distinguishable from the concordant group.

♦ Apparently, discordant individuals achieve correct responses by investing more effort/resources. Still they can not constantly keep this high level of effort, and by occasionally loosing this level of effort they commit errors.

♦ Concordant individuals invest less effort/resources, with no such evident signs of recoil.


Conclusions

Conclusions


Conclusions1

Conclusions

♦ Current findings point to the importance of using a multidimensional approach in the psychophysiological studies of temperament


Conclusions2

Conclusions

♦ Current findings point to the importance of using a multidimensional approach in the psychophysiological studies of temperament

♦ Dimensions known as “unitary” may in fact be spitted into several physiologically valid dimensions


Conclusions3

Conclusions

♦ Current findings point to the importance of using a multidimensional approach in the psychophysiological studies of temperament

♦ Dimensions known as “unitary” may in fact be spitted into several physiologically valid dimensions

♦ The number of true temperament dimensions is not known, and it is reasonable to expect very high numbers of them


Conclusions4

Conclusions

♦ Current findings point to the importance of using a multidimensional approach in the psychophysiological studies of temperament

♦ Dimensions known as “unitary” may in fact be spitted into several physiologically valid dimensions

♦ The number of true temperament dimensions is not known, and it is reasonable to expect very high numbers

♦ Most people adapt through individual trial-and-error learning, and adhere to a limited number of coping strategies – thus making it realistic to approximate temperament of most people with a small number of dimensions


Conclusions5

Conclusions

♦ Current findings point to the importance of using a multidimensional approach in the psychophysiological studies of temperament

♦ Dimensions known as “unitary” may in fact be spitted into several physiologically valid dimensions

♦ The number of true temperament dimensions is not known, and it is reasonable to expect very high numbers

♦ Most people adapt through individual trial-and-error learning, and adhere to a limited number of coping strategies – thus making it realistic to approximate temperament of most people with a small number of dimensions

♦ A fraction of the population individual learning partly fails due to external or internal factors. Such individuals have untypical relations within multidimensional temperament space, making them different from the rest of the population (usually with negative effects on academic and professional success even if they possess high cognitive abilities).


Research team

Research team

Dina M.RamendikIvan E.Lazarev Evgenia S. Osokina Nikita A. Novikov

Dmitri V. Bryzgalov Anastasia S. Antonenko Elena A. Arkhipova Galiya R. Khusyainova


Thank you for your attention

Thank you for your attention!


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