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Welcome to Cells and Heredity. Weekly Lab – scientific tools and scientific exploration. If you have a certain volume of water will it have a corresponding mass? Is the relationship between water volume

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Weekly lab scientific tools and scientific exploration
Weekly Lab – scientific tools and scientific exploration

If you have a certain volume of water will it have a

corresponding mass?

Is the relationship between water volume

and mass linear?

Does the mass of water change depending on

the volume?

Tools:

Beakers

Triple Beam Balances

Water

Graph paper


Cells and heredity…The genetics of life!

What makes something living?

CHARACTERISTICS of living organisms

Biotic

Ability to develop and grow

Ability to respond to the environment

Ability to reproduce

THEN…

Made of CELLS



Organelles and their functions in the cell…

Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.

Examples include:

Mitochondria

Chloroplasts

Cell wall

Lysosomes

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Central vacuole

Ribosomes

Nucleus


What are the differences between plant and animal cells?

Animals

lysosome

Plants

Central vacuole

Chloroplast

Cell wall


Using technology in the science classroom
Using technology in the science classroom

-Check out ipad

-open the app “explain everything” to develop a video explaining the function and purpose of organelles in a cell

-include information on the difference between plant and animal cells.


Cell Theory states that…

1

Every living thing is made of one or more cells

Unicellular

Multicellular

2

Cells carry out the functions needed to support life

3

Cells come from other living cells


Unicellular organisms

Small…bacteria… algae…amoebae

One cell

Can survive on their own

Multicellular organisms

Larger…many cells…specialized…

different types of cells



LITERS

GRAMS

METERS

CELCIUS

LIQUID

WEIGHT

AREA

PERIMETER



Weekly lab osmosis
Weekly Lab – Osmosis

Why is it important that materials be able

to move in and out of a cell??

How do materials move into and out of cells?

Tools:

Eggs

Vinegar

Plastic cup

Data sheet

Triple bean balance

STEPS:

Weigh cup

Weigh cup and egg

Determine starting weight of egg

Place egg in vinegar

Record weight of egg in data sheet


Diffusion

The movement of atoms or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Atoms and small molecules can move across a cell membrane by diffusion

Not just as a liquid…


Osmosis

Osmosis is the diffusion of the movement of water from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration through a cell membrane or other semi-permeable membrane until an equilibrium is reached.


The movement of materials in and out of a cell, using the cells energy.

EXAMPLE – Sweating (removal of salts)

Active Transport

The movement of materials in and out of a cell, without using any of the cells energy.

EXAMPLE - Diffusion

ENDOCYTOSIS

&

EXCOCYTOSIS

Passive Transport


Welcome to a-sexual reproduction cells energy.

Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only


Cells are broken down into two groups cells energy.

Eukaryotic Cells

-Genetic material in nucleus

-Organelles

-Predominantly multicellular

Prokaryotic cells

Genetic material in cytoplasm

No organelles

Mostly unicellular organisms


A sexual reproduction
A-Sexual Reproduction cells energy.

The identical creation of a new cell/structure can live separately yet genetically identical to the parent.

Mitosis

In unicellular organisms

Cell Division = Reproduction


Budding
Budding cells energy.

Single cells - yeast

Multi-cellular - Hydra


Binary fission
Binary Fission cells energy.

In simple terms, splitting in two…

Prokaryotes – split in two EX: bacteria

Eukaryotic organisms – separate and independent

EX: algae / paramecium




Interphase cells energy.

Mitosis

Cytokinesis

Mitosis – a-sexual cell division


With multi-cellular organisms, new cells are unable to live alone, they become part of the original structure.

GROWTH

&

REPAIR

Part of the cell cycle

Mitosis…

The second part of the cell cycle, as the chromosomes divide and split


Cellular reproduction

Mitosis alone, they become part of the original structure.

= a-sexual

Cellular Reproduction

Meiosis

= sexual cell division


REVIEW alone, they become part of the original structure.

HUMANS – (organism)

Multicellular

Has nucleus in cells

Eukaryotic

Bacteria – (organism)

Unicellular

No nucleus

DNA in Cytoplasm

Prokaryotic

New organism from two parents

Cloned organism from one parent

Mitosis

Or skin….

Meiosis

Producing a genetically different offspring


New Organism alone, they become part of the original structure.

Sexual

Meiosis

Daughter Cell (clone)

A-sexual

Mitosis

CELL DIVISION


The Cell Cycle has three main parts… alone, they become part of the original structure.

Mitosis


Growth and Repair alone, they become part of the original structure.


WHY Mitosis alone, they become part of the original structure.

Mitosis causes growth and repair by providing more identical cells to replace old, damaged or missing cells for repair or to produce more tissue for growth.

Cell division has the ability to create new cells and is a simplistic way of cell reproduction. The cell copies themselves reproducing and creating a identical daughter cell.

The ability to do this gives the cells the ability to repair things such as…?


What is growth and repair

What is Growth and Repair? alone, they become part of the original structure.


Growth repair or both
Growth, repair or both? alone, they become part of the original structure.


Growth repair or both1
Growth, repair or both? alone, they become part of the original structure.


Growth repair or both2
Growth, repair or both? alone, they become part of the original structure.


Growth, repair or both? alone, they become part of the original structure.


Growth repair or both3
Growth, repair or both? alone, they become part of the original structure.


Growth repair or both4
Growth, repair or both? alone, they become part of the original structure.


Welcome to meiosis alone, they become part of the original structure.

What is mitosis again?


Meiosis alone, they become part of the original structure.

=

sexual cell division with the purpose of developing a new individual offspring

ONLY in reproductive tissues?

TERMINOLOGY

Sperm

Egg

Gamete

fertilization

REPRODUCTION


Web Quest – In teams of two alone, they become part of the original structure.

-Find a working definition for meiosis and convert to your words

-Build graphic organizer to show definitions for at least five terms

-Develop definition to compare meiosis to mitosis


What is meiosis
What is meiosis? alone, they become part of the original structure.

  • Sexual reproduction of diploid cells which creates four haploid daughter cells. These daughter cells become either sperm or eggs (gametes).


What is fertilization
What is fertilization? alone, they become part of the original structure.

  • The combining of egg and sperm (gametes) to create a zygote (new being)


Genetics
Genetics alone, they become part of the original structure.


Dominant Traits- alone, they become part of the original structure.

Brown Eyes

Dark hair

Unattached earlobes

Dimples

Freckles

Can roll tongue

Left over right thumb

Widows Peak

Recessive Traits-

Blue Eyes

Blond/red hair

Attached earlobes

No Dimples

No Freckles

Can’t roll tongue

Right over left thumb

No Widows Peak


The Punnett Square … Determining Heredity alone, they become part of the original structure.

1822-1884

Gregor Mendel


Looking at traits alone, they become part of the original structure.


Why is there a brown chicken? alone, they become part of the original structure.


Blood
BLOOD alone, they become part of the original structure.


Blood alone, they become part of the original structure. is a combination of plasma (watery liquid) and cells that float in it. It is a specialized bodily fluid that supplies essentials substances and nutrients, such as sugar, oxygen, and hormones to our cells, and carries waste away from those cells, this waste is eventually flushed out of the body in urine, feces, sweat, and lungs (carbon dioxide). Blood also contains clotting agents.

Blood type is determined by proteins called antigens:


Three types of blood cells: alone, they become part of the original structure.

RED – most abundant, responsible for carrying O2 to the cells in the body

WHITE – part of immune system that keeps us healthy in killing destructive agents to the body

PLATLETS – The clotting parts that seal wounds


Four Possible Blood Types alone, they become part of the original structure.

The ABO blood type classification system uses the presence distinct molecules called agglutinogens

or absence of these molecules to categorize blood into four types:

Type O blood is the recessive allele


BLOOD TYPE IS GENETIC alone, they become part of the original structure.

The A and B antigen molecules on the surface of red blood cells are produced by two different enzymes. These two enzymes are encoded by different versions, or alleles, of the same gene: A and B.

The A and B alleles code for enzymes that produce the type A and B antigens respectively.

A third version of this gene, the O allele, codes for a protein that is not functional and does not produce surface molecules. (recessive)

Two copies of the gene are inherited, one from each parent. The possible combinations of alleles produce blood types in the following way:


How white blood cells are formed alone, they become part of the original structure.


Blood cells – white blood cells alone, they become part of the original structure.


Terminology alone, they become part of the original structure.

Plasma - 55% of total blood volume– holds blood in suspension and 92% by volume water

Antibodies -a blood protein produced by white blood cells to combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.

Antigen – the foreign substance being attacked by antibodies


Dna intro and review
DNA intro and review alone, they become part of the original structure.


DNA = alone, they become part of the original structure.

The information molecule

Replication produces two identical molecules of DNA


The hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell’s nucleus

(where it is called nuclear DNA)

DNA

Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people.


Parts of the double helix organisms. Nearly every cell in a person

DNA base pairs –

Cytosine & Guanine

Adenine & Thymine

Phosphates and sugar

The pairs are always together, their order on the DNA molecule is what changes


GENES- Chromosomes - DNA organisms. Nearly every cell in a person


Dna criteria
DNA CRITERIA organisms. Nearly every cell in a person

  • Explain before you begin:

    • What are adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine

    • How are they paired?

  • Open DNA Damage

  • Write ALL information that is given to you


Mutations organisms. Nearly every cell in a person

A change in DNA, the heredity material of life. An organism’s DNA affects how it looks, behaves and its physiology.

mutations - change


Unit exam
UNIT EXAM organisms. Nearly every cell in a person


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