Welcome to Cells and Heredity
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Welcome to Cells and Heredity. Weekly Lab – scientific tools and scientific exploration. If you have a certain volume of water will it have a corresponding mass? Is the relationship between water volume

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Welcome to Cells and Heredity

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Welcome to Cells and Heredity


Weekly Lab – scientific tools and scientific exploration

If you have a certain volume of water will it have a

corresponding mass?

Is the relationship between water volume

and mass linear?

Does the mass of water change depending on

the volume?

Tools:

Beakers

Triple Beam Balances

Water

Graph paper


Cells and heredity…The genetics of life!

What makes something living?

CHARACTERISTICS of living organisms

Biotic

Ability to develop and grow

Ability to respond to the environment

Ability to reproduce

THEN…

Made of CELLS


What are the internal structures of a cell?


Organelles and their functions in the cell…

Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.

Examples include:

Mitochondria

Chloroplasts

Cell wall

Lysosomes

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Central vacuole

Ribosomes

Nucleus


What are the differences between plant and animal cells?

Animals

lysosome

Plants

Central vacuole

Chloroplast

Cell wall


Using technology in the science classroom

-Check out ipad

-open the app “explain everything” to develop a video explaining the function and purpose of organelles in a cell

-include information on the difference between plant and animal cells.


Cell Theory states that…

1

Every living thing is made of one or more cells

Unicellular

Multicellular

2

Cells carry out the functions needed to support life

3

Cells come from other living cells


Unicellular organisms

Small…bacteria…algae…amoebae

One cell

Can survive on their own

Multicellular organisms

Larger…many cells…specialized…

different types of cells


Metric REVIEW


LITERS

GRAMS

METERS

CELCIUS

LIQUID

WEIGHT

AREA

PERIMETER


Diffusion and Osmosis?


Weekly Lab – Osmosis

Why is it important that materials be able

to move in and out of a cell??

How do materials move into and out of cells?

Tools:

Eggs

Vinegar

Plastic cup

Data sheet

Triple bean balance

STEPS:

Weigh cup

Weigh cup and egg

Determine starting weight of egg

Place egg in vinegar

Record weight of egg in data sheet


Diffusion

The movement of atoms or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Atoms and small molecules can move across a cell membrane by diffusion

Not just as a liquid…


Osmosis

Osmosis is the diffusion of the movement of water from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration through a cell membrane or other semi-permeable membrane until an equilibrium is reached.


The movement of materials in and out of a cell, using the cells energy.

EXAMPLE – Sweating (removal of salts)

Active Transport

The movement of materials in and out of a cell, without using any of the cells energy.

EXAMPLE - Diffusion

ENDOCYTOSIS

&

EXCOCYTOSIS

Passive Transport


Welcome to a-sexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only


Cells are broken down into two groups

Eukaryotic Cells

-Genetic material in nucleus

-Organelles

-Predominantly multicellular

Prokaryotic cells

Genetic material in cytoplasm

No organelles

Mostly unicellular organisms


A-Sexual Reproduction

The identical creation of a new cell/structure can live separately yet genetically identical to the parent.

Mitosis

In unicellular organisms

Cell Division = Reproduction


Budding

Single cells - yeast

Multi-cellular - Hydra


Binary Fission

In simple terms, splitting in two…

Prokaryotes – split in two EX: bacteria

Eukaryotic organisms – separate and independent

EX: algae / paramecium


Regeneration in Northern Sea Star


Cell division - A sexual


Interphase

Mitosis

Cytokinesis

Mitosis – a-sexual cell division


With multi-cellular organisms, new cells are unable to live alone, they become part of the original structure.

GROWTH

&

REPAIR

Part of the cell cycle

Mitosis…

The second part of the cell cycle, as the chromosomes divide and split


Mitosis

= a-sexual

Cellular Reproduction

Meiosis

= sexual cell division


REVIEW

HUMANS – (organism)

Multicellular

Has nucleus in cells

Eukaryotic

Bacteria – (organism)

Unicellular

No nucleus

DNA in Cytoplasm

Prokaryotic

New organism from two parents

Cloned organism from one parent

Mitosis

Or skin….

Meiosis

Producing a genetically different offspring


New Organism

Sexual

Meiosis

Daughter Cell (clone)

A-sexual

Mitosis

CELL DIVISION


The Cell Cycle has three main parts…

Mitosis


Growth and Repair


WHY Mitosis

Mitosis causes growth and repair by providing more identical cells to replace old, damaged or missing cells for repair or to produce more tissue for growth.

Cell division has the ability to create new cells and is a simplistic way of cell reproduction. The cell copies themselves reproducing and creating a identical daughter cell.

The ability to do this gives the cells the ability to repair things such as…?


What is Growth and Repair?


Growth, repair or both?


Growth, repair or both?


Growth, repair or both?


Growth, repair or both?


Growth, repair or both?


Growth, repair or both?


Welcome to meiosis

What is mitosis again?


Meiosis

=

sexual cell division with the purpose of developing a new individual offspring

ONLY in reproductive tissues?

TERMINOLOGY

Sperm

Egg

Gamete

fertilization

REPRODUCTION


Web Quest – In teams of two

-Find a working definition for meiosis and convert to your words

-Build graphic organizer to show definitions for at least five terms

-Develop definition to compare meiosis to mitosis


What is meiosis?

  • Sexual reproduction of diploid cells which creates four haploid daughter cells. These daughter cells become either sperm or eggs (gametes).


What is fertilization?

  • The combining of egg and sperm (gametes) to create a zygote (new being)


Genetics


Dominant Traits-

Brown Eyes

Dark hair

Unattached earlobes

Dimples

Freckles

Can roll tongue

Left over right thumb

Widows Peak

Recessive Traits-

Blue Eyes

Blond/red hair

Attached earlobes

No Dimples

No Freckles

Can’t roll tongue

Right over left thumb

No Widows Peak


The Punnett Square … Determining Heredity

1822-1884

Gregor Mendel


Looking at traits


Why is there a brown chicken?


BLOOD


Blood is a combination of plasma (watery liquid) and cells that float in it. It is a specialized bodily fluid that supplies essentials substances and nutrients, such as sugar, oxygen, and hormones to our cells, and carries waste away from those cells, this waste is eventually flushed out of the body in urine, feces, sweat, and lungs (carbon dioxide). Blood also contains clotting agents.

Blood type is determined by proteins called antigens:


Three types of blood cells:

RED – most abundant, responsible for carrying O2 to the cells in the body

WHITE – part of immune system that keeps us healthy in killing destructive agents to the body

PLATLETS – The clotting parts that seal wounds


Four Possible Blood Types

The ABO blood type classification system uses the presence distinct molecules called agglutinogens

or absence of these molecules to categorize blood into four types:

Type O blood is the recessive allele


BLOOD TYPE IS GENETIC

The A and B antigen molecules on the surface of red blood cells are produced by two different enzymes. These two enzymes are encoded by different versions, or alleles, of the same gene: A and B.

The A and B alleles code for enzymes that produce the type A and B antigens respectively.

A third version of this gene, the O allele, codes for a protein that is not functional and does not produce surface molecules. (recessive)

Two copies of the gene are inherited, one from each parent. The possible combinations of alleles produce blood types in the following way:


How white blood cells are formed


Blood cells – white blood cells


Terminology

Plasma - 55% of total blood volume– holds blood in suspension and 92% by volume water

Antibodies -a blood protein produced by white blood cells to combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.

Antigen – the foreign substance being attacked by antibodies


DNA intro and review


DNA =

The information molecule

Replication produces two identical molecules of DNA


The hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell’s nucleus

(where it is called nuclear DNA)

DNA

Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people.


Parts of the double helix

DNA base pairs –

Cytosine & Guanine

Adenine & Thymine

Phosphates and sugar

The pairs are always together, their order on the DNA molecule is what changes


GENES- Chromosomes - DNA


DNA CRITERIA

  • Explain before you begin:

    • What are adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine

    • How are they paired?

  • Open DNA Damage

  • Write ALL information that is given to you


Mutations

A change in DNA, the heredity material of life. An organism’s DNA affects how it looks, behaves and its physiology.

mutations - change


UNIT EXAM


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