Welcome to Cells and Heredity. Weekly Lab – scientific tools and scientific exploration. If you have a certain volume of water will it have a corresponding mass? Is the relationship between water volume
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Welcome to Cells and Heredity
If you have a certain volume of water will it have a
Is the relationship between water volume
and mass linear?
Does the mass of water change depending on
Triple Beam Balances
Cells and heredity…The genetics of life!
What makes something living?
CHARACTERISTICS of living organisms
Ability to develop and grow
Ability to respond to the environment
Ability to reproduce
Made of CELLS
What are the internal structures of a cell?
Organelles and their functions in the cell…
Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
What are the differences between plant and animal cells?
-Check out ipad
-open the app “explain everything” to develop a video explaining the function and purpose of organelles in a cell
-include information on the difference between plant and animal cells.
Cell Theory states that…
Every living thing is made of one or more cells
Cells carry out the functions needed to support life
Cells come from other living cells
Can survive on their own
different types of cells
Why is it important that materials be able
to move in and out of a cell??
How do materials move into and out of cells?
Triple bean balance
Weigh cup and egg
Determine starting weight of egg
Place egg in vinegar
Record weight of egg in data sheet
The movement of atoms or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Atoms and small molecules can move across a cell membrane by diffusion
Not just as a liquid…
Osmosis is the diffusion of the movement of water from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration through a cell membrane or other semi-permeable membrane until an equilibrium is reached.
The movement of materials in and out of a cell, using the cells energy.
EXAMPLE – Sweating (removal of salts)
The movement of materials in and out of a cell, without using any of the cells energy.
EXAMPLE - Diffusion
Welcome to a-sexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only
Cells are broken down into two groups
-Genetic material in nucleus
Genetic material in cytoplasm
Mostly unicellular organisms
The identical creation of a new cell/structure can live separately yet genetically identical to the parent.
In unicellular organisms
Cell Division = Reproduction
Single cells - yeast
Multi-cellular - Hydra
In simple terms, splitting in two…
Prokaryotes – split in two EX: bacteria
Eukaryotic organisms – separate and independent
EX: algae / paramecium
Regeneration in Northern Sea Star
Cell division - A sexual
Mitosis – a-sexual cell division
With multi-cellular organisms, new cells are unable to live alone, they become part of the original structure.
Part of the cell cycle
The second part of the cell cycle, as the chromosomes divide and split
= sexual cell division
HUMANS – (organism)
Has nucleus in cells
Bacteria – (organism)
DNA in Cytoplasm
New organism from two parents
Cloned organism from one parent
Producing a genetically different offspring
Daughter Cell (clone)
The Cell Cycle has three main parts…
Growth and Repair
Mitosis causes growth and repair by providing more identical cells to replace old, damaged or missing cells for repair or to produce more tissue for growth.
Cell division has the ability to create new cells and is a simplistic way of cell reproduction. The cell copies themselves reproducing and creating a identical daughter cell.
The ability to do this gives the cells the ability to repair things such as…?
What is Growth and Repair?
Growth, repair or both?
Welcome to meiosis
What is mitosis again?
sexual cell division with the purpose of developing a new individual offspring
ONLY in reproductive tissues?
Web Quest – In teams of two
-Find a working definition for meiosis and convert to your words
-Build graphic organizer to show definitions for at least five terms
-Develop definition to compare meiosis to mitosis
Can roll tongue
Left over right thumb
Can’t roll tongue
Right over left thumb
No Widows Peak
The Punnett Square … Determining Heredity
Looking at traits
Why is there a brown chicken?
Blood is a combination of plasma (watery liquid) and cells that float in it. It is a specialized bodily fluid that supplies essentials substances and nutrients, such as sugar, oxygen, and hormones to our cells, and carries waste away from those cells, this waste is eventually flushed out of the body in urine, feces, sweat, and lungs (carbon dioxide). Blood also contains clotting agents.
Blood type is determined by proteins called antigens:
Three types of blood cells:
RED – most abundant, responsible for carrying O2 to the cells in the body
WHITE – part of immune system that keeps us healthy in killing destructive agents to the body
PLATLETS – The clotting parts that seal wounds
Four Possible Blood Types
The ABO blood type classification system uses the presence distinct molecules called agglutinogens
or absence of these molecules to categorize blood into four types:
Type O blood is the recessive allele
BLOOD TYPE IS GENETIC
The A and B antigen molecules on the surface of red blood cells are produced by two different enzymes. These two enzymes are encoded by different versions, or alleles, of the same gene: A and B.
The A and B alleles code for enzymes that produce the type A and B antigens respectively.
A third version of this gene, the O allele, codes for a protein that is not functional and does not produce surface molecules. (recessive)
Two copies of the gene are inherited, one from each parent. The possible combinations of alleles produce blood types in the following way:
How white blood cells are formed
Blood cells – white blood cells
Plasma - 55% of total blood volume– holds blood in suspension and 92% by volume water
Antibodies -a blood protein produced by white blood cells to combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
Antigen – the foreign substance being attacked by antibodies
The information molecule
Replication produces two identical molecules of DNA
The hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell’s nucleus
(where it is called nuclear DNA)
Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people.
Parts of the double helix
DNA base pairs –
Cytosine & Guanine
Adenine & Thymine
Phosphates and sugar
The pairs are always together, their order on the DNA molecule is what changes
GENES- Chromosomes - DNA
A change in DNA, the heredity material of life. An organism’s DNA affects how it looks, behaves and its physiology.
mutations - change