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Self-Monitoring. Self-Monitoring (SM). Systematic observation and recording by a person of his or her behavior or other experiences. SM (cont’d). Recording frequency, duration, latency, interresponse interval, or magnitude of an experience (e.g., activity, thought, feeling)

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Self monitoring sm
Self-Monitoring (SM)

Systematic observation and recording by a person of his or her behavior or other experiences


Sm cont d
SM (cont’d)

  • Recording frequency, duration, latency, interresponse interval, or magnitude of an experience (e.g., activity, thought, feeling)

  • Sometimes collection of information about conditions under which the experience occurs

    • “Client log” or “structured diary”


Sm cont d1
SM (cont’d)

  • Self-report but…

    • SM involves self-reports of behaviors and experiences over time made in the client’s normal environment when they occur

    • Standardized self-report scales involve self-reports of behaviors and experiences that occurred at another time and in another place

    • IRSs can be used either way


Purposes
Purposes

  • Pinpoint and define problems in a way that reflects the unique perceptions and circumstances of clients

  • Explore and clarify unique contexts in which problems occur

  • Measure and monitor client progress

  • Enhance client functioning


Decide what to measure
Decide What to Measure

  • Pinpoint and define problems

  • Quantify problems

  • Record contextual information

  • Put qualitative and quantitative information together


Decide when and where to measure
Decide When and Where to Measure

  • Interval-contingent sampling

    • Client observes and records at predefined times each day (e.g., morning and afternoon) or at regular intervals (e.g., every two hours)

    • Best used when behavior or other experience is ongoing (such as anxiety) or occurs frequently (such as obsessive thoughts)


Decide when and where to measure cont d
Decide When and Where to Measure (cont’d)

  • Event-contingent sampling

    • Client observes and records in response to predefined events or situations (e.g., after an interaction with a particular person)

    • Best used for self-monitoring experiences surrounding specific events that don’t occur too frequently or that don’t occur at regular intervals


Decide when and where to measure cont d1
Decide When and Where to Measure (cont’d)

  • Signal-contingent sampling

    • Client observes and records information at random times, typically signaled by an electronic device (e.g., smart phone)


Select sm instruments
Select SM Instruments

  • See Chapters 10 and 11

  • http://www.getselfhelp.co.uk/freedownloads2.htm


Engage and prepare client
Engage and Prepare Client

  • Explain that self-monitoring provides a record of events that might be forgotten

  • Describe, demonstrate, and practice in advance

  • Ensure that the client is willing and able

  • Provide individualized forms or devices (e.g., Smartphones—“self-monitoring” and “smartphone” to see what’s new)

  • Review information with the client


Maximizing accuracy of sm
Maximizing Accuracy of SM

Strategies discussed in Chapters 8 and 11


Verifying accuracy of sm
Verifying Accuracy of SM

  • Obtain and compare information from different sources and different measurement methods

  • What the client chooses to report and how it’s reported can be as important as “objective reality”


Set goals and objectives
Set Goals and Objectives

See Chapters 10 and 11


Advantages of sm
Advantages of SM

  • Rich source of quantitative and qualitative information about overt and covert experiences

  • When collected in real time and in the client’s natural environment has the potential to provide accurate and relevant information to guide practice


Advantages of sm cont d
Advantages of SM (cont’d)

  • When expanded to collection of contextual information can provide basis for generating intervention and prevention hypotheses

  • Can change behavior in a beneficial direction


Precautions in using sm
Precautions in Using SM

  • Potentially reactive

    • Reactivity: degree to which measurement procedures produce changes in what is being measured

  • Places relatively heavy burden on clients

  • Difficult to verify accuracy of SM


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