Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128
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Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128. UPS Classification. Based on the topology the UPSes are classified to the three basic categories (IEC 62040-3): Passive Standby (Off-line) Line-interactive Double Conversion (On-Line). Basic UPS Topology - Off-line UPS. Advantages:

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Presentation Transcript

Ups classification
UPS Classification

  • Based on the topology the UPSes are classified to the three basic categories (IEC 62040-3):

    • Passive Standby (Off-line)

    • Line-interactive

    • Double Conversion (On-Line)


Basic ups topology off line ups
Basic UPS Topology - Off-line UPS

Advantages:

- Very low cost

- High efficiency

- Compact size

  • Disadvantages:

  • - Limited protection

  • - Not sinusoidal output

  • Uses battery during brownouts

  • Short drop-out during transition on battery

MCU:

- MC68HC908x


Basic ups topology line interactive ups
Basic UPS Topology - Line-Interactive UPS

Advantages:

- Medium cost

- High efficiency

- Better voltage conditioning

Disadvantages:

- Still limited protection

- Short drop-out during transition on battery

  • MCU:

  • MC68HC908x

  • MC68HC908MRx


Basic ups topology on line ups
Basic UPS Topology- On-Line UPS

  • Advantages:

  • Excellent voltage conditioning

  • Full protection

Disadvantages:

- High cost

- Low efficiency

  • Possible MCU:

  • HCS12E128

  • DSP56F80x

  • DSP56F80xx

  • DSP56F83xx


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e1281
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128

Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e1282
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128

  • Demo Features

    • Single Phase On-line Topology

    • 750 VA Output Power

    • 115/230 V Input Line

    • Controlled by MC9S12E128

    • Single LED User Interface

      • 4 Status LEDs

      • 6 LEDs Bar Graph

      • 2 Buttons

    • Graphical User Interface on PC

    • Ready for GUI Display

    • Demo suitcase


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e1283
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128

  • Demo Concept

    • Four PCBs

      • UPS Power Stage

      • Input Filter

      • User Interface

      • MC9S12E128 Control Board

    • Demo case


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e1284
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128

  • Concept Schematic

  • Input Rectifier

  • Voltage Doubler

  • PFC

  • Average Current Mode PFC

  • Directly controlled by MCU

  • Output Inverter

  • True Sinusoidal Output

  • Directly controlled by MCU

  • Battery Charger

  • FlyBack DC-DC Converter

  • Controlled by TOP249Y (Power Integration, Inc.)

  • Max. Output Power: 60W

  • 3 – State Charging Algorithm (Bulk charge, Absorption, Float) controlled by MCU

  • DC-DC Step Up Converter

  • Push - Pull Converter

  • Directly Controlled by MCU

  • Max. Output Power: 560W

Whole UPS controlled by one MC9S12E128 only


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e1285
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128

  • MC9S12E128 Features

    • 16-bit HCS12 CPU, 50 MHz core clock

    • 128K bytes of Flash EEPROM, 8K bytes of RAM

    • 3 x SCI, 1 x SPI, 1 x IIC

    • 3 x 4-channel 16-bit timer modules (TIM)

    • 6-channel 15-bit Pulse Modulator with Fault protection module (PMF)

    • 6-channel 8-bit Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)

    • 16-channel 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

    • 2 x 1-channel 8-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC)

    • Up to 16 pins available as Keypad Wake-Up inputs

    • 2 x additional external asynchronous interrupts

    • Up to 74 I/O port pins and 18 input only pins for 112 pin package

    • Up to 42 I/O port pins and 18 input only pins for 80 pin package


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • Battery Charger

    • Fly-Back Topology Converter

    • Dedicated circuit used (TOP249)

    • Output parameters

      • Output voltage: 29.4 or 27.4 V (set by MCU)

      • Output current: max. 1.8 A

      • Current limitation: 0 – 1.8 A (set by MCU)

    • Charge algorithm

      • 3 state (bulk charge, absorption, float)

    • MCU Interface

      • 2 analog inputs (battery voltage and battery current)

      • 1 analog output (PWM + filter, current limitation)

      • 1 digital output (output voltage 29.4 or 27.4 V)


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation1
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • Battery Charger Schematic


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation2
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • Battery Charging Algorithm

    • 3 Step Charging: Bulk, Absorption, Float


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation3
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • DC/DC Step Up Converter

    • Converts the battery voltage (24 V) to DC bus voltage (+/- 390V)

    • Push-Pull Topology

    • 50 kHz switching frequency

    • Fully controlled by MCU

    • Output parameters

      • Output Voltage: +/- 390 V

      • Output Current: 0.8 A

    • MCU interface

      • 2 analog inputs (+/- DC bus voltage)

      • 2 PWM outputs (PWM for transistors)


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation4
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • DC/DC Step Up Converter Schematic


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation5
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • Input Rectifier + Power Factor Correction (PFC)

    • Voltage doubler rectifier

    • PFC using bidirectional switch (one transistor only)

    • Control technique

      • Average Current Mode Control by MCU

      • 40 kHz switching frequency

      • Current control loop 50 ms

      • Voltage control loop 1 ms

    • Output parameters

      • Output power: 750 W

      • DC Bus voltage: +/- 390 V

    • MCU Interface

      • 4x analog input (2x DC bus voltage, 1x input current, 1x input voltage)

      • 1x PWM output (PFC transistor)

      • 1x Input Capture (Zero crossing)


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation6
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • Input Rectifier + PFC Controller Schematic


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation7
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • Output Inverter

    • Half bridge topology

    • 20 kHz switching frequency

    • Control technique

      • Fully controlled by MCU

      • PID controller + voltage feed forward + current feedback

      • 50 ms control loop

    • Output parameters

      • Output Voltage: 110 - 240 V

      • Output current: 3.3 A

    • MCU Interface

      • 4 analog input (2x DC bus voltage, 1x output current, 1x output voltage)

      • 2 PWM outputs (inverter transistors)


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation8
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • Output Inverter Schematic


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation9
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • MC9S12E128 Control Board

    • MC9S12E128 16-bit +5V Microcontroller operating at 25MHz

    • 8.00MHz crystal oscillator for MCU frequency generation

    • Background Debug Mode (BDM) interface connector

    • 2x Optically isolated RS-232 interface

    • Communication Header (SPI, SCI1, IIC)

    • PWM and Timer Header

      • Pulse Width Modulation, PWM, or Timer2, TIM2 Timer1, TIM1

    • ADC and DAC Header

      • Analog-to-Digital Converter, ADC

      • Digital-to-Analog Converter, DAC Expansion Header for 16-bit Multiplexed Wide Bus

    • On-board power regulation from an external 12V DC supplied power input


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation10
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • MC9S12E128 Control Board - continue

    • Light Emitting Diode (LED) power indicator

    • One on-board real-time user debugging LEDs

    • Six on-board PWM monitoring LEDs

    • Six on-board PMF monitoring LEDs

    • Four on-board PMF Fault monitoring LEDs

    • UNI-3 Motor interface

    • Over-Voltage sensing

    • Over-Current sensing

    • Comparators for automatic current profiling

    • Encoder/Hall-Effect interface

    • Manual RESET push-button

    • General purpose and interrupt toggle switch

    • 2x General purpose and interrupt push-button


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation11
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation

  • MC9S12E128 Control Board – Block Diagram


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation

  • Software Structure

    • 5x periodical interrupts (2x 50 ms, 1x 1 ms, 1x 10 ms, 1x 50ms)

    • 3x event interrupts (PMF faults, LVI, SCI)

    • Background loop

    • Written in C language

    • Some critical algorithms written in assembler (sine wave generation, PID controllers, arithmetic functions)


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation1
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation

  • Software Structure - continue


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation2
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation

  • Software Structure - continue


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation3
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation

  • Battery Charger

Execution period: 50 ms


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation4
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation

  • DC/DC Step Up Converter

Execution period: 1 ms


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation5
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation

  • Power Factor Correction

Execution period: 1 ms

Execution period: 50 ms


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation6
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation

  • Output Inverter

Execution period: 1 ms

Execution period: 50 ms


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation7
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation

  • Application State Machine


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 software measurements
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Software Measurements

  • UPS Software Measurements

    • Code Length

      • FLASH memory: 10087 bytes

      • RAM memory: 3014 bytes (include stack 512 bytes)

    • MCU load: 77.5 % (without PCMaster serial communication)

      • PMF Reload 15.8 ms (period 50 ms)

      • ATD Complete 19.4 ms (period 50 ms)

      • TIM0 ch4 IC 7.8 ms (period 8.3 ms)

      • TIM0 ch5 OC 69 ms (period 1 ms)

      • TIM0 ch6 OC 43.4 ms (period 50 ms)


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 software measurements1
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Software Measurements

  • UPS Software Measurements - continues

PMF Reload

ATD Complete

TIM0 ch5 OC

TIM0 ch6 OC


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Load defined by IEC 62040-1

    • Linear load (525 W)

      • R = 100 W

    • Non-linear load (750 VA)

      • R = 160 W

      • Rs = 2.8 W

      • C = 780 mF


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements1
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Overall efficiency – linear load


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements2
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Overall efficiency – non-linear load


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements3
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Output frequency - synchronized


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements4
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Output frequency – free running


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements5
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Output Voltage THD – without load


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements6
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Output Voltage THD – with linear load


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements7
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Output Voltage THD – with non-linear load


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements8
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Output Voltage THD – with non-linear load


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements9
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Output Voltage THD – with non-linear load


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements10
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Input Power Factor


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements11
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Output Power Factor (linear load)


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements12
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Load Step 20 % -> 100 %


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements13
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Load Step 20 % -> 100 %


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements14
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Load Step 100 % -> 20 %


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements15
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements

  • Load Step 100 % -> 20 %



Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 developments tools
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Developments tools

  • FreeMaster

    • Real time monitor

    • Read and write any variable in application

    • Display the variables in physical quantities

    • Scope

    • Recorder

    • Control page in HTML code


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 developments tools1
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Developments tools

Scope or recorder

Variables window


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 developments tools2
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Developments tools

Control page


Single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 deliverables
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Deliverables

  • Reference Design Deliverables

    • Design documentation (source and PDF)

    • Targeting documentation (source and PDF)

    • Application note

    • Presentation Material

    • All source code and related material for written software

    • PCB layout gerber files (source and PDF)

    • Schematic files (source and PDF)

    • BOM (source and PDF)



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