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Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128. UPS Classification. Based on the topology the UPSes are classified to the three basic categories (IEC 62040-3): Passive Standby (Off-line) Line-interactive Double Conversion (On-Line). Basic UPS Topology - Off-line UPS. Advantages:

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ups classification
UPS Classification
  • Based on the topology the UPSes are classified to the three basic categories (IEC 62040-3):
    • Passive Standby (Off-line)
    • Line-interactive
    • Double Conversion (On-Line)
basic ups topology off line ups
Basic UPS Topology - Off-line UPS

Advantages:

- Very low cost

- High efficiency

- Compact size

  • Disadvantages:
  • - Limited protection
  • - Not sinusoidal output
  • Uses battery during brownouts
  • Short drop-out during transition on battery

MCU:

- MC68HC908x

basic ups topology line interactive ups
Basic UPS Topology - Line-Interactive UPS

Advantages:

- Medium cost

- High efficiency

- Better voltage conditioning

Disadvantages:

- Still limited protection

- Short drop-out during transition on battery

  • MCU:
  • MC68HC908x
  • MC68HC908MRx
basic ups topology on line ups
Basic UPS Topology- On-Line UPS
  • Advantages:
  • Excellent voltage conditioning
  • Full protection

Disadvantages:

- High cost

- Low efficiency

  • Possible MCU:
  • HCS12E128
  • DSP56F80x
  • DSP56F80xx
  • DSP56F83xx
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e1281
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128

Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128

single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e1282
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128
  • Demo Features
    • Single Phase On-line Topology
    • 750 VA Output Power
    • 115/230 V Input Line
    • Controlled by MC9S12E128
    • Single LED User Interface
      • 4 Status LEDs
      • 6 LEDs Bar Graph
      • 2 Buttons
    • Graphical User Interface on PC
    • Ready for GUI Display
    • Demo suitcase
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e1283
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128
  • Demo Concept
    • Four PCBs
      • UPS Power Stage
      • Input Filter
      • User Interface
      • MC9S12E128 Control Board
    • Demo case
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e1284
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128
  • Concept Schematic
  • Input Rectifier
  • Voltage Doubler
  • PFC
  • Average Current Mode PFC
  • Directly controlled by MCU
  • Output Inverter
  • True Sinusoidal Output
  • Directly controlled by MCU
  • Battery Charger
  • FlyBack DC-DC Converter
  • Controlled by TOP249Y (Power Integration, Inc.)
  • Max. Output Power: 60W
  • 3 – State Charging Algorithm (Bulk charge, Absorption, Float) controlled by MCU
  • DC-DC Step Up Converter
  • Push - Pull Converter
  • Directly Controlled by MCU
  • Max. Output Power: 560W

Whole UPS controlled by one MC9S12E128 only

single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e1285
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128
  • MC9S12E128 Features
    • 16-bit HCS12 CPU, 50 MHz core clock
    • 128K bytes of Flash EEPROM, 8K bytes of RAM
    • 3 x SCI, 1 x SPI, 1 x IIC
    • 3 x 4-channel 16-bit timer modules (TIM)
    • 6-channel 15-bit Pulse Modulator with Fault protection module (PMF)
    • 6-channel 8-bit Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
    • 16-channel 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC)
    • 2 x 1-channel 8-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC)
    • Up to 16 pins available as Keypad Wake-Up inputs
    • 2 x additional external asynchronous interrupts
    • Up to 74 I/O port pins and 18 input only pins for 112 pin package
    • Up to 42 I/O port pins and 18 input only pins for 80 pin package
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • Battery Charger
    • Fly-Back Topology Converter
    • Dedicated circuit used (TOP249)
    • Output parameters
      • Output voltage: 29.4 or 27.4 V (set by MCU)
      • Output current: max. 1.8 A
      • Current limitation: 0 – 1.8 A (set by MCU)
    • Charge algorithm
      • 3 state (bulk charge, absorption, float)
    • MCU Interface
      • 2 analog inputs (battery voltage and battery current)
      • 1 analog output (PWM + filter, current limitation)
      • 1 digital output (output voltage 29.4 or 27.4 V)
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation1
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • Battery Charger Schematic
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation2
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • Battery Charging Algorithm
    • 3 Step Charging: Bulk, Absorption, Float
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation3
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • DC/DC Step Up Converter
    • Converts the battery voltage (24 V) to DC bus voltage (+/- 390V)
    • Push-Pull Topology
    • 50 kHz switching frequency
    • Fully controlled by MCU
    • Output parameters
      • Output Voltage: +/- 390 V
      • Output Current: 0.8 A
    • MCU interface
      • 2 analog inputs (+/- DC bus voltage)
      • 2 PWM outputs (PWM for transistors)
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation4
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • DC/DC Step Up Converter Schematic
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation5
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • Input Rectifier + Power Factor Correction (PFC)
    • Voltage doubler rectifier
    • PFC using bidirectional switch (one transistor only)
    • Control technique
      • Average Current Mode Control by MCU
      • 40 kHz switching frequency
      • Current control loop 50 ms
      • Voltage control loop 1 ms
    • Output parameters
      • Output power: 750 W
      • DC Bus voltage: +/- 390 V
    • MCU Interface
      • 4x analog input (2x DC bus voltage, 1x input current, 1x input voltage)
      • 1x PWM output (PFC transistor)
      • 1x Input Capture (Zero crossing)
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation6
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • Input Rectifier + PFC Controller Schematic
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation7
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • Output Inverter
    • Half bridge topology
    • 20 kHz switching frequency
    • Control technique
      • Fully controlled by MCU
      • PID controller + voltage feed forward + current feedback
      • 50 ms control loop
    • Output parameters
      • Output Voltage: 110 - 240 V
      • Output current: 3.3 A
    • MCU Interface
      • 4 analog input (2x DC bus voltage, 1x output current, 1x output voltage)
      • 2 PWM outputs (inverter transistors)
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation8
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • Output Inverter Schematic
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation9
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • MC9S12E128 Control Board
    • MC9S12E128 16-bit +5V Microcontroller operating at 25MHz
    • 8.00MHz crystal oscillator for MCU frequency generation
    • Background Debug Mode (BDM) interface connector
    • 2x Optically isolated RS-232 interface
    • Communication Header (SPI, SCI1, IIC)
    • PWM and Timer Header
      • Pulse Width Modulation, PWM, or Timer2, TIM2 Timer1, TIM1
    • ADC and DAC Header
      • Analog-to-Digital Converter, ADC
      • Digital-to-Analog Converter, DAC Expansion Header for 16-bit Multiplexed Wide Bus
    • On-board power regulation from an external 12V DC supplied power input
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation10
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • MC9S12E128 Control Board - continue
    • Light Emitting Diode (LED) power indicator
    • One on-board real-time user debugging LEDs
    • Six on-board PWM monitoring LEDs
    • Six on-board PMF monitoring LEDs
    • Four on-board PMF Fault monitoring LEDs
    • UNI-3 Motor interface
    • Over-Voltage sensing
    • Over-Current sensing
    • Comparators for automatic current profiling
    • Encoder/Hall-Effect interface
    • Manual RESET push-button
    • General purpose and interrupt toggle switch
    • 2x General purpose and interrupt push-button
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 hw implementation11
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- HW Implementation
  • MC9S12E128 Control Board – Block Diagram
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation
  • Software Structure
    • 5x periodical interrupts (2x 50 ms, 1x 1 ms, 1x 10 ms, 1x 50ms)
    • 3x event interrupts (PMF faults, LVI, SCI)
    • Background loop
    • Written in C language
    • Some critical algorithms written in assembler (sine wave generation, PID controllers, arithmetic functions)
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation1
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation
  • Software Structure - continue
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation2
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation
  • Software Structure - continue
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation3
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation
  • Battery Charger

Execution period: 50 ms

single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation4
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation
  • DC/DC Step Up Converter

Execution period: 1 ms

single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation5
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation
  • Power Factor Correction

Execution period: 1 ms

Execution period: 50 ms

single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation6
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation
  • Output Inverter

Execution period: 1 ms

Execution period: 50 ms

single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 sw implementation7
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- SW Implementation
  • Application State Machine
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 software measurements
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Software Measurements
  • UPS Software Measurements
    • Code Length
      • FLASH memory: 10087 bytes
      • RAM memory: 3014 bytes (include stack 512 bytes)
    • MCU load: 77.5 % (without PCMaster serial communication)
      • PMF Reload 15.8 ms (period 50 ms)
      • ATD Complete 19.4 ms (period 50 ms)
      • TIM0 ch4 IC 7.8 ms (period 8.3 ms)
      • TIM0 ch5 OC 69 ms (period 1 ms)
      • TIM0 ch6 OC 43.4 ms (period 50 ms)
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 software measurements1
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Software Measurements
  • UPS Software Measurements - continues

PMF Reload

ATD Complete

TIM0 ch5 OC

TIM0 ch6 OC

single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Load defined by IEC 62040-1
    • Linear load (525 W)
      • R = 100 W
    • Non-linear load (750 VA)
      • R = 160 W
      • Rs = 2.8 W
      • C = 780 mF
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements1
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Overall efficiency – linear load
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements2
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Overall efficiency – non-linear load
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements3
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Output frequency - synchronized
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements4
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Output frequency – free running
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements5
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Output Voltage THD – without load
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements6
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Output Voltage THD – with linear load
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements7
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Output Voltage THD – with non-linear load
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements8
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Output Voltage THD – with non-linear load
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements9
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Output Voltage THD – with non-linear load
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 performance measurements11
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Performance Measurements
  • Output Power Factor (linear load)
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 developments tools
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Developments tools
  • FreeMaster
    • Real time monitor
    • Read and write any variable in application
    • Display the variables in physical quantities
    • Scope
    • Recorder
    • Control page in HTML code
single phase on line ups demo using mc9s12e128 deliverables
Single Phase On-Line UPS Demo Using MC9S12E128- Deliverables
  • Reference Design Deliverables
    • Design documentation (source and PDF)
    • Targeting documentation (source and PDF)
    • Application note
    • Presentation Material
    • All source code and related material for written software
    • PCB layout gerber files (source and PDF)
    • Schematic files (source and PDF)
    • BOM (source and PDF)
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