Glucocorticoids
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Glucocorticoids. High levels of circulating cortisol, as seen with corticosteroid drugs (prednisone), or tumors (adrenal cortex, pituitary gland) is called Cushing’s syndrome Manifestations include hyper- glycemia, poor wound healing, osteoporosis, dermatitis, fat

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Glucocorticoids

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Glucocorticoids

Glucocorticoids

  • High levels of circulating cortisol, as seen with corticosteroid drugs (prednisone), or tumors (adrenal cortex, pituitary gland) is called Cushing’s syndrome

    • Manifestations include hyper-

      glycemia, poor wound healing,

      osteoporosis, dermatitis, fat

      redistribution (spindly arms and

      legs, moon face, buffalo hump at

      the neck), and truncal obesity


Glucocorticoids1

Glucocorticoids

  • In adults, hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone, usually as a result of an autoimmune disorder, is called Addison’s disease

    • The physiologic effects include

      hypoglycemia, Na+loss, low BP,

      dehydration, and muscle weakness

      • only after his death did the world

        learn that President Kennedy

        suffered from Addison’s disease


The adrenal medulla

The Adrenal Medulla

  • The inner region of the adrenal gland, the adrenal medulla, is a modified sympathetic ganglion that develops from the same embryonic tissue as all other sympathetic ganglia of the ANS and is innervated by sympathetic preganglionic neurons

    • The catecholamines epinephrine (80%), and norepinephrine (20%), are secreted at the adrenal medulla and serve to prolong the sympathetic response


Adrenal medulla hormones interactions animation

ADRENAL MEDULLA HORMONES(Interactions Animation)

  • Epinephrine/Norepinephrine

You must be connected to the internet to run this animation


The pancreas

The Pancreas

  • The pancreas is both an endocrine and an exocrine gland. It is located posterior and inferior to the stomach. We will discuss its endocrine functions here and its exocrine functions

    in detail in chapter 24


The pancreas1

The Pancreas

  • Most of the exocrine cells of the pancreas are arranged in clusters called acini and produce digestive enzymes which flow through ducts into the GI tract

    • Distributed among the acini are clusters of endocrine tissue

      called pancreatic

      islets (islets of

      Langerhans)


Pancreatic hormones

Pancreatic Hormones

  • Each pancreatic islet contains four types of hormone-secreting cells: alpha (A), beta (B), delta (D), and F cells

    • Alpha cells secrete glucagon which increases blood glucose levels by acting

      on hepatocytes to

      convert glycogen

      to glucose

    • Beta cells secrete

      insulin


Pancreatic hormones1

Pancreatic Hormones

  • Insulin is an anabolic hormone - it decreases blood glucose levels by acting on

    hepatocytes to convert glucose

    to glycogen and then facilitating

    diffusion of glucose into the cells

  • Insulin and glucagon are counter-

    regulatory hormones in that

    their actions act to balance one

    another in terms of blood glucose


Pancreatic hormones2

Pancreatic Hormones

  • Somatostatin acts in a paracrine manner to inhibit both insulin and glucagon release from neighboring beta and alpha cells. It

    also inhibits the secretion

    of hGH

  • The interactions of the

    four pancreatic hormones

    are complex and not

    completely understood


Glucocorticoids

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

5

5

5

5

Low blood glucose

(hypoglycemia)

stimulates alpha

cells to secrete

Low blood glucose

(hypoglycemia)

stimulates alpha

cells to secrete

Low blood glucose

(hypoglycemia)

stimulates alpha

cells to secrete

Low blood glucose

(hypoglycemia)

stimulates alpha

cells to secrete

Low blood glucose

(hypoglycemia)

stimulates alpha

cells to secrete

Low blood glucose

(hypoglycemia)

stimulates alpha

cells to secrete

Low blood glucose

(hypoglycemia)

stimulates alpha

cells to secrete

Low blood glucose

(hypoglycemia)

stimulates alpha

cells to secrete

High blood glucose

(hyperglycemia)

stimulates beta cells

to secrete

High blood glucose

(hyperglycemia)

stimulates beta cells

to secrete

High blood glucose

(hyperglycemia)

stimulates beta cells

to secrete

High blood glucose

(hyperglycemia)

stimulates beta cells

to secrete

GLUCAGON

GLUCAGON

GLUCAGON

GLUCAGON

GLUCAGON

GLUCAGON

GLUCAGON

GLUCAGON

INSULIN

INSULIN

INSULIN

INSULIN

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

6

6

6

Glucagon acts on

hepatocytes

(liver cells) to:

Glucagon acts on

hepatocytes

(liver cells) to:

Glucagon acts on

hepatocytes

(liver cells) to:

Glucagon acts on

hepatocytes

(liver cells) to:

Glucagon acts on

hepatocytes

(liver cells) to:

Glucagon acts on

hepatocytes

(liver cells) to:

Glucagon acts on

hepatocytes

(liver cells) to:

Insulin acts on various

body cells to:

Insulin acts on various

body cells to:

Insulin acts on various

body cells to:

• accelerate facilitated

diffusion of glucose

into cells

• speed conversion of

glucose into glycogen

(glycogenesis)

• increase uptake of

amino acids and increase

protein synthesis

• speed synthesis of fatty

acids (lipogenesis)

• slow glycogenolysis

• slow gluconeogenesis

• accelerate facilitated

diffusion of glucose

into cells

• speed conversion of

glucose into glycogen

(glycogenesis)

• increase uptake of

amino acids and increase

protein synthesis

• speed synthesis of fatty

acids (lipogenesis)

• slow glycogenolysis

• slow gluconeogenesis

• accelerate facilitated

diffusion of glucose

into cells

• speed conversion of

glucose into glycogen

(glycogenesis)

• increase uptake of

amino acids and increase

protein synthesis

• speed synthesis of fatty

acids (lipogenesis)

• slow glycogenolysis

• slow gluconeogenesis

• convert glycogen

into glucose

(glycogenolysis)

• form glucose from

lactic acid and

certain amino acids

(gluconeogenesis)

• convert glycogen

into glucose

(glycogenolysis)

• form glucose from

lactic acid and

certain amino acids

(gluconeogenesis)

• convert glycogen

into glucose

(glycogenolysis)

• form glucose from

lactic acid and

certain amino acids

(gluconeogenesis)

• convert glycogen

into glucose

(glycogenolysis)

• form glucose from

lactic acid and

certain amino acids

(gluconeogenesis)

• convert glycogen

into glucose

(glycogenolysis)

• form glucose from

lactic acid and

certain amino acids

(gluconeogenesis)

• convert glycogen

into glucose

(glycogenolysis)

• form glucose from

lactic acid and

certain amino acids

(gluconeogenesis)

• convert glycogen

into glucose

(glycogenolysis)

• form glucose from

lactic acid and

certain amino acids

(gluconeogenesis)

3

3

3

3

3

3

Glucose released

by hepatocytes

raises blood glucose

level to normal

Glucose released

by hepatocytes

raises blood glucose

level to normal

Glucose released

by hepatocytes

raises blood glucose

level to normal

Glucose released

by hepatocytes

raises blood glucose

level to normal

Glucose released

by hepatocytes

raises blood glucose

level to normal

Glucose released

by hepatocytes

raises blood glucose

level to normal

7

7

Blood glucose level falls

Blood glucose level falls

4

4

4

4

4

8

If blood glucose

continues to rise,

hyperglycemia inhibits

release of glucagon

If blood glucose

continues to rise,

hyperglycemia inhibits

release of glucagon

If blood glucose

continues to rise,

hyperglycemia inhibits

release of glucagon

If blood glucose

continues to rise,

hyperglycemia inhibits

release of glucagon

If blood glucose

continues to rise,

hyperglycemia inhibits

release of glucagon

If blood glucose continues

to fall, hypoglycemia

inhibits release of

insulin

Glucose/Insulin

Regulation


Pancreatic hormones interactions animation

PANCREATIC HORMONES(Interactions Animation)

  • Insulin

You must be connected to the internet to run this animation


Gonadal hormones

Gonadal Hormones

  • The ovaries are paired oval bodies located in the female pelvic cavity. They produce several steroid hormones including two estrogens (estradiol and estrone), progesterone, relaxin, and inhibin

    • Estrogens, along with FSH and

      LH from the anterior pituitary,

      regulate the menstrual cycle,

      maintain pregnancy, and prepare

      the mammary glands for lactation


Gonadal hormones1

Gonadal Hormones

  • Ovarian hormones also promote enlargement of the breasts and widening of the hips at puberty, and help maintain these female secondary sex characteristics

    • Progesterone prepares the uterus lining for implantation of a fertilized ovum


Ovarian hormones interactions animation

OVARIAN HORMONES(Interactions Animation)

  • Hormonal Regulation of Female Reproductive System

You must be connected to the internet to run this animation


Gonadal hormones2

Gonadal Hormones

  • The male gonads, the testes, are oval glands that lie in the scrotum. The main hormone produced and secreted by the testes is testosterone, an androgen (male sex hormone)

    • Testosterone is needed for

      production of sperm and

      maintenance of male

      secondary sex characteristics


Testicular hormones interactions animation

TESTICULAR HORMONES(Interactions Animation)

  • Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive Function

You must be connected to the internet to run this animation


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