The Big Four. 1. The important Characteristics of Carbon . Forms 4 covalent bonds Forms double and triple bonds Forms long chains and rings Can bind with many other elements Even electron distribution ( nonpolar molecules).
Isomers – molecules that have the same formula but different structures.
(http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat/dehydrat.html or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyDnnD3fMaU )
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type of biochemical
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Monosaccharides in general serve as direct, quick sources of energy for living organisms during cellular respiration, they are building blocks of many polymers
Disaccharides – two monosaccharide molecules combine by dehydration synthesis to form disaccharides
Polysaccharides – many (tens to hundreds) units of monosaccharides combine by dehydration synthesis
Chitin – made up of some nitrogen containing monosaccharides. It is an important polysaccharide that provide the solid structure of arthropods and fungi.
Simple lipids are important as storage materials in all living things. They can store twice as many calories as polysaccharides can. Oils (mostly from plants) contain more unsaturated fatty acids, while fats (animals) contain more saturated fatty acids.
But some steroids are necessary in certain concentrations.
Cholesterol – important component of the cell membrane, but can be harmful if overdosed in diet. Too much cholesterol can lead to atherosclerosis and other circulatory problems.
Monomers: Amino acids – they are small molecules but complex themselves.
The R group can be 20 different kinds of side chains. Because of these side chains we have 20 different types of amino acids in our body.
Secondary structure – The long polypeptide chain folds up by using H-bonds.
Tertiary structure – all kinds of chemical bonds (covalent, ionic, disulfide bridge, H-bond, van der Waals attraction, dipole-dipole interactions) are used to form the 3 dimensional structure of the polypeptide chain.
Quaternary structure – If a protein is made up of more than one polypeptide chains, they are connected by various bonds during the quaternary structure of the protein.
The function of nucleotides is to build up nucleic acids, but they can also act as energy and hydrogen carrying molecules in different biological processes.
DNA is used by all living cells as a storage molecule of their genetic information. DNA is able to copy itself and pass on the genetic material when a cell reproduces.
The nucleic acids in food are not considered a substance that the body uses to gain energy.