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Extra-terrestrial life: Is there anybody out there?. Reach for the Stars. Dr Martin Hendry University of Glasgow. Is there Anybody Out There?. Life in the Solar System?. Extra-Solar Planets. Searching for Life. Life in the Solar System. Runaway Greenhouse Effect.

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Extra-terrestrial life:

Is there anybody out there?

Reach for the Stars

Dr Martin Hendry

University of Glasgow


Is there Anybody Out There?

Life in the Solar System?

Extra-Solar Planets

Searching for Life





Impact energy = 1 million million megatons during first aeon.

5 billion cubic miles of the crust sprayed into space

Atmosphere ejected into space

Ring of ejecta coalesces into Moon


Is there life on Mars?… during first aeon.


Is there life on Mars?… during first aeon.


  • Mars 2004: during first aeon.

  • Mars Express ( + Beagle 2)

  • Spirit + Opportunity


Jan 23 during first aeon.rd 2004:

Mars Express Orbiter detects water ice at the South Pole of Mars.


Jan 23 during first aeon.rd 2004:

Mars Express Orbiter detects water ice at the South Pole of Mars.


Jan 23 during first aeon.rd 2004:

Mars Express Orbiter detects water ice at the South Pole of Mars.

CO2

Visible light

H2O


Images suggest flowing water during first aeon.

on Mars in the past

Mars Earth

Water on Mars


2mm during first aeon.


The moons of Jupiter during first aeon.


Isaac Newton: during first aeon.

1642 – 1727 AD

The Principia: 1684 - 1686



Galileo’s Moons during first aeon.


Inside Europa during first aeon.

Could there be life?…..


EXTRA-SOLAR PLANETS during first aeon.

The stars are VERY far away. The nearest star (after the Sun) is about 40 million million km from the Earth. It takes light more than 4 years to travel this distance..

If the distance from the Earth to the Sun were the width of this screen, the nearest star would be in Paris !!!!


Wobbling stars: the key to finding during first aeon.

extra-solar planets

Planets are too faint to see directly

but

Planets and stars orbit their common centre of mass

- so stars wobble


The Sun’s “wobble”, due to Jupiter, seen from 30 light years away

= width of a 5p piece in Baghdad


Doppler Shift years away


Star years away

Laboratory



Absorption years away

e -

e -


Emission years away

e -

e -


Star years away

Laboratory



What have we learned about exoplanets? years away

Highly active, and rapidly changing, field

Aug 2000: 29 exoplanets


What have we learned about exoplanets? years away

Highly active, and rapidly changing, field

Aug 2000: 29 exoplanets

2004: ~120 exoplanets


What have we learned about exoplanets? years away

Highly active, and rapidly changing, field

Aug 2000: 29 exoplanets

Up-to-date summary at

http://www.exoplanets.org

Now finding planets at larger orbital semimajor axis

2004: ~120 exoplanets


Looking to the Future years away

The Doppler wobble technique will not be sensitive enough to

detect Earth-type planets (i.e. Earth mass at 1 A.U.), but will

continue to detect more massive planets


Looking to the Future years away

The Doppler wobble technique will not be sensitive enough to

detect Earth-type planets (i.e. Earth mass at 1 A.U.), but will

continue to detect more massive planets

The ‘position wobble’ (astrometric) technique will detect

Earth-type planets – Space Interferometry Mission in 2009

(already done with HST in Dec 2002 for a 2 x Jupiter-mass planet)


Looking to the Future years away

The Doppler wobble technique will not be sensitive enough to

detect Earth-type planets (i.e. Earth mass at 1 A.U.), but will

continue to detect more massive planets

The ‘position wobble’ (astrometric) technique will detect

Earth-type planets – Space Interferometry Mission in 2009

(already done with HST in Dec 2002 for a 2 x Jupiter-mass planet)

The Kepler mission (launch 2007?) will detect transits of

Earth-type planets, by observing the brightnessdip of stars

(already done in 2000 with Keck for a 0.5 x Jupiter-mass planet)


Looking to the Future years away

The Doppler wobble technique will not be sensitive enough to

detect Earth-type planets (i.e. Earth mass at 1 A.U.), but will

continue to detect more massive planets

The ‘position wobble’ (astrometric) technique will detect

Earth-type planets – Space Interferometry Mission in 2009

(already done with HST in Dec 2002 for a 2 x Jupiter-mass planet)

The Kepler mission (launch 2007?) will detect transits of

Earth-type planets, by observing the brightnessdip of stars

(already done in 2000 with Keck for a 0.5 x Jupiter-mass planet)

There was a (rare) transit of Mercury on May 7th 2003, and a (very rare) transit of Venus on June 8th 2004


Looking to the Future years away

}

NASA: Terrestrial Planet Finder

ESA: Darwin

~ 2015 launch

These missions plan to use nulling interferometry to ‘blot out’ the light of the parent star, revealing Earth-mass planets


Looking to the Future years away

ESP

}

NASA: Terrestrial Planet Finder

ESA: Darwin

~ 2015 launch

These missions plan to use nulling interferometry to ‘blot out’ the light of the parent star, revealing Earth-mass planets

Follow-up spectroscopy will search for signatures of life:-

Spectral lines of oxygen, water

carbon dioxide in atmosphere

Simulated ‘Earth’ from 30 light years



Earth from 30 lyrs years away


Is there anybody out there?…. years away

….if there isn’t, it seems

a terrible waste of space !!!!


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