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The Enlightenment . Chase Beach. How it started. Reason People started to question the teachings of the church Natural Law Hope Progress. John Locke. Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding Argued that every person is born with a blank mind.

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how it started
How it started
  • Reason
    • People started to question the teachings of the church
  • Natural Law
  • Hope
  • Progress
john locke
John Locke
  • Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    • Argued that every person is born with a blank mind.
  • Thought that if people were introduced to new and better influences then there could be a better society.
john locke1
John Locke
  • Has major influence on the development of epistemology and political philosophy
  • Thought of as the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers
isaac newton
Isaac Newton
  • Wrote PhilosophiaeNaturalis Principia Mathematica
    • Described Universal Gravitation and the three laws of motion
  • Built the first practical reflecting telescope
  • Helped invent calculus
isaac newton1
Isaac Newton
  • Worked on the Biblical Hermeneutics
    • He was a very religious man
  • Heand John Locke were good friends
  • Member of Parliament of England
    • From 1689-1690
baron de montesquieu
Baron De Montesquieu
  • Born January 10, 1755 in Bordeaux
  • Studied at the Catholic College of Juilly
  • Most Famous for his book The Spirit of the Laws
    • Came up with the separation of powers
baron de montesquieu1
Baron De Montesquieu
  • He used the scientific method to find natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of humans
  • He identified 3 kinds of governments:
    • Republics
    • Despotism
    • Monarchies
baron de montesquieu2
Baron De Montesquieu
  • Republics were suitable for small states
  • Despotism was suitable for large states
  • Monarchies were ideal for mid-sized states
  • He also came up with the idea of the system of checks and balances
voltaire
Voltaire
  • Born François-Marie Arouet
  • Born into a noble family
  • Went to a prestigious college
    • He was fluent in French, English, and Spanish
  • First used the name Voltaire as a pen name
voltaire1
Voltaire
  • He was a popular writer
    • Wrote Plays, Poetry, Novels, Essays, historical and scientific books, and much more
  • Known for his criticism of Christianity and belief in religious tolerance
denis diderot
Denis Diderot
  • Born October 5, 1713
  • Went to the University of Paris
    • Father wanted him to become a lawyer
  • Instead he became a writer
  • Most famous for writing the Encyclopedia
    • Changed the way people thought of things.
adam smith
Adam Smith
  • Wrote The Wealth of Nations
  • The book talked about how the state should not interfere with the economy
  • He gave the government 3 basic rules
    • It should protect society from invasion
adam smith1
Adam Smith
    • The government should defend citizens from injustice
    • It should deal with some public works such as roads, schools, and canals
  • He has been called the founder of the social science of economics
cesarebeccaria
CesareBeccaria
  • Wrote On Crimes and Punishment
    • Stated that punishment should not be exercises in brutality
    • Also said there should be no capital punishment
  • Was the first work of penology
jean jacques rousseau
Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • Most famous philosopher of the late enlightenment
  • Switched jobs a lot until he came to Paris and became a philosopher
    • Did not like the city and remained in solitude most of his time
jean jacques rousseau1
Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • In his book The Social Contract he introduced the Social Contract
    • The book stated in a social contract, an entire society governs itself by its general will.
    • People who oppose have to be forced to agree to the government
mary wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • One of the first women to speak out about the rights of women
  • She is called the founder of the modern movement for women
  • She wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women
    • Talked about 2 problems that the enlightenment thinkers had
john wesley
John Wesley
  • Founder of Methodism
  • Had an encounter with God that caused him to become a missionary
  • Many Anglican churches were closed to him so he preached outside or in halls
  • He traveled a lot and preached around 2 or 3 times a day
  • After hearing his sermons many people converted to the Methodist society
  • The Methodists helped in the abolition of slavery in the U.S
balthasar neumann
Balthasar Neumann
  • 2 most famous pieces of art were:
    • The Church of Fourteen Saints
    • The Residence
  • Neumann started to use new ideas and styles rather than the traditional ones
    • Rococo was the new artistic style that became popular
antoine watteau
Antoine Watteau
  • The new art style Rococo was found in a lot of Antoine Watteau’s pieces
  • He depicted a nice dinner party where men and women dressed up and looked very happy
  • He tries to hide the sadness that was going on at the time
johann sebastian bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
  • Music director at the church of Saint Thomas in Leipzig
  • Most famous for his Mass in B Minor
  • More known for being an organist than a composer
  • His style on the piano was so different than anyone else’s that people were drawn to him
george frederic handel
George Frederic Handel
  • Known for his religious music
  • His work, Messiah, was his best work
  • Used the Baroque musical style
  • At the age of 52, he had a stroke
    • Made his right arm temporarily paralyzed
franz joseph haydn
Franz Joseph Haydn
  • Was the director for Hungarian princes for the majority of his life
  • When he went to England he started to perform more for public places than private parties
  • His 2 greatest works of music were The Creation and The Four Seasons
wolfgang amadeus mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • Was a child prodigy
  • He traveled around at a young age with his family performing
  • Later went on to write around 600 pieces of music
  • His inability to get a sponsor led to his downfall
  • He composed 3 of the greatest operas of all time
    • The Marriage of Figaro
    • The Magic Flute
    • Don Giovanni
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