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PENDIDIKAN. Pelbagai erti. Pelbagai erti. Tafsiran P endidikan. Sosiologi dan antropologi. proses pembudayaan (enculturation) di mana ahli sesuatu masyarakat mempelajari dan menerima kepercayaan , nilai-nilai , norma , cara bertindak yang dianggap sesuai dalam masyarakat itu .

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Pendidikan

PENDIDIKAN


Pelbagai erti

Pelbagaierti


Pelbagai erti1

Pelbagaierti


Tafsiran p endidikan

TafsiranPendidikan


Sosiologi dan antropologi

Sosiologidanantropologi

prosespembudayaan(enculturation) dimanaahlisesuatu

masyarakatmempelajaridanmenerimakepercayaan, nilai-nilai, norma, carabertindak yang dianggapsesuaidalammasyarakatitu.

Seseorang yang berbudayaialahseseorang yang menghayatidan

mengamalkan nilai dan tingkah laku yang ‘baik’ dalam masyarakat itu.

prosesdanhasil pendidikan oleh sesebuah masyarakat yang percaya dan memberi tumpuan kepada pendidikan sainsdanteknologiadalahberbezadenganmasyarakat yang mementingkanpendidikan agama dantatasusila; daninitentunyajugaberbezadenganmasyarakat yang memberitumpuankepadakemahirandalamperniagaan


Apakah pendidikan dari perspektif ilmu ekonomi

Apakahpendidikandariperspektifilmuekonomi


Apakah pendidikan dari perspektif ilmu sains politik

Apakahpendidikandariperspektifilmusainspolitik?


Pendidikan dari perspektif psikologi pendidikan

Pendidikandariperspektifpsikologipendidikan


Apakah pendidikan formal non formal dan informal

Apakahpendidikan formal, non-formal, dan informal

Pendidikanseseorangituialahpengalaman yang iaterimahasildaripada

interaksinyadenganorang lain

alamsekitardalamberbagai-bagaisituasi:

dalamkeluarga,

masyarakatdisekeliling,

media massa,

sekolah

Ketiga-tigabentukpendidikanbolehberlakusecaraserentakatauberasingan


Apakah pendidikan formal

Apakahpendidikan formal?


Apakah pendidikan non formal

Apakahpendidikan non-formal


Apakah pendidikan informal

Apakahpendidikan informal


Apakah erti pendidikan sepanjang hayat

Apakahertipendidikansepanjanghayat


Pendidikan

Latihandanpendidikanberterusandiperingkatdewasapentinguntukseseorangterusmenjadiproduktifdalamkerjanya, memahamidanmenyesuaikandiridenganilmupengetahuanbaru yang pesatberkembang.


Laporan unesco jacques delors 1996 learning

Laporan UNESCO, Jacques Delors (1996) Learning:


Apakah matlamat pendidikan

Apakahmatlamatpendidikan

Sebelumpenjajah British (sebelum 1800)

lebih 90% pendudukdi Tanah MelayuialahorangMelayu.

Sistempendidikanbagianak-anakMelayuialahpendidikan

agama Islam sepertimengaji Quran danbelajarhal-halrukun Islam.

Selepas British bertapakdi Tanah

MelayusekolahInggerispertamaiaitu Penang Free School ditubuhkanpadatahun 1816 diPulau Pinang. KemudiantertubuhlahsekolahrendahMelayuuntukanak-anakMelayu.


Pendidikan pada awal kemerdekaan

Pendidikanpadaawalkemerdekaan


Pendidikan pada awal kemerdekaan1

Pendidikanpadaawalkemerdekaan


Pendidikan pada awal kemerdekaan2

Pendidikanpadaawalkemerdekaan


Pendidikan

Akta 1961 dikajisemuladandipindadantermaktubdalamAktaPendidikan 1996. SebahagianbesarAkta 1996 mengandungiperkaradandasar yang terkandungdalamAktaPelajaran 1961.

Akta 1996 inimenjadiundang-undangasasdalammelaksanakansistempelajarandinegarakitahinggakini.


Pendidikan

DasarPendidikanKebangsaanadalahberlandaskanFalsafahPendidikan Negara yang dizahirkansepertiberikut:

"Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensiindividusecaramenyeluruhdanbersepaduuntukmewujudkaninsan yang seimbangdanharmonisdarisegiintelek, rohani, emosidanjasmaniberdasarkankepercayaandankepatuhankepadaTuhan. Usaha iniadalahbagimelahirkanrakyat Malaysia yang berilmu, bertanggungjawabdanberkeupayaanmencapaikesejahteraandirisertamemberisumbanganterhadapkeharmoniandankemakmuranmasyarakatdannegara."


Apakah tujuan pendidikan di sekolah rendah dan menengah di malaysia

Apakahtujuanpendidikandisekolahrendahdanmenengahdi Malaysia?

Salahsatumatlamatpendidikannegarakitaialahsupayamuridkitadapatmenguasaiilmu

pengetahuandanpelbagaikemahiran.

Bagaimanakahmatlamatinihendakdicapaidiperingkat

sekolahrendah?

Apakahtujuanpendidikandisekolahrendah?

Salahsatutujuanutamamuridbelajardisekolahadalahsupayamerekamenguasaikemahiran 4M,

Pandaimembaca, menulis, mengiradanmenaakuldalamBahasa Malaysia, danmenguasaikemahiranmembacadanmenulisBahasaInggeris.

Bahasainiialahalatpentinguntukpembelajaranpelbagaiilmupengetahuan lain.


Pendidikan

Tujuan lain pendidikandisekolahrendahadalahsupayamerekabersikapingintahu, sukabertanya, berfikir, rajinbelajardanberdayausahamencaripengetahuansendiridaripelbagaisumber – daripada guru, buku, berbincangbersamakawan, memerhatihal-haldikelilingmereka, membacapelbagaibahantermasukdalam internet.


Pendidikan

Rujukbuku, Internet dansumber lain-lain untukmengumpulmaklumattentangpersoalanpersoalanini. Andamungkinjugabolehmembuattemuramahdenganbeberapaorang guru, muriddankemudian membuat kesimpulan tujuan pendidikan sekolah menengah.


Apakah erti pengajaran dan pedagogi

Apakahertipengajarandanpedagogi


Pengajaran

Pengajaran

Prosespenyampaiilmu, kemahiran, sikapdannilai


Teaching is

Teaching is

Imparting knowledge

Developing skills and habits

Inculcating positive attitudes

Instilling universal values

Fostering good nafs and ruh


Teaching

One directional

Multi directional/

interactive

Teaching


Definasi pengajaran

Definasipengajaran

Kamus Dewan, Edisi Baru (1994)

perihalmengajar, segalasesuatu yang berkaitandenganmengajar (sptcaraatausistemmengajar)

segalasesuatu (cara, perbuatandll) yang diajarkan, ajaran

3. peringatan, pedoman

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Pendidikan

… samb. DefinasiPengajaran

Ajar…

petunjuksupayadiketahuisebagaibimbinganataupanduanpadamelakukansesuatu

Mengajar…

1. menyampaikanilmupengetahuan (kemahirandsb) petunjukkepadaorang lain, mendidik, memberikan

2. memperbaikikelakuandgnmemberinasihatdsb, mendidik3. membuatsesorangmelakukanatautidakmelakukansesuatuberdasarkanpengalamandsbygtelahdiperolehinya

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Samb definasi pengajaran

… samb. DefinasiPengajaran

“… merupakan suatu aktiviti atau proses yang bertujuan mengubah tingkah laku, sikap atau kepercayaan pelajar” (Lee, 1997).

“… sebagai satu sistem aktiviti yang diarahkan kepada murid/pelajar, biasanya bersemuka dengan guru/pensyarah, bertujuan untuk membawa sesuatu perubahan pada diri murid/pelajar” (Rahil, Habibah dan Kamariah, 1997).

migFPA170604


Pendidikan

… definasi dari internet

Teaching -to impart by instruction and training the knowledge and skills required by a student to practice her/his profession.

Teaching - the activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill.

Teaching - systematic presentation of facts, ideas, skills, and techniques to students

migFPA170604


Pendidikan

… definasi tokoh-tokoh pendidikan

“Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for learning” (Brown, H.G. 2000).

migFPA170604


Pendidikan

Mendidik educate

Berbincang discuss

Membimbing counsel

Memainkanperanan role play

Menghurai elaborate

Mencarijawapan to find out

Menerangkan explain

Menjawap to answer

Menunjuk demonstrate

Melakonkan to dramatise

Memberitahu tell

Bermain to play

Mencerita narrate

Menggalakkan motivate


Pendidikan

  • Mengarah direct

  • Mendorong motivate

  • Mengurus manage

  • Membetulkan to correct

  • Melatih train, coach

  • Menyuburkan cultivate

  • Memudahkan facilitate

  • Memperkembangkan to develop

  • Bertanya question

  • Menjaga to care

  • Berinteraksi interact

  • Mengasuh to care and develop

  • Berkomunikasi communicate

  • Mendengar to listen


Apakah itu model pengajaran

Apakahitu Model Pengajaran?

Model - kerangkakonseptualuntukmembantukitamelihat

bahagian-bahagian yang berkaitan di dalamnya, dan memikir hubungan di antara bahagian-bahagian itudenganlebihmudahkeranasifatnya yang meringkaskansuatuproses yang kompleks.

Melihatprosesdanhasilpengajaran yang lebihsistematikmelalui model pengajaran


Pengajaran pembelajaran berlaku dalam konteks sistem pelajaran

Pengajaran & pembelajaranberlakudalamkontekssistempelajaran

Q pengajaran

Q proses & hasilpembelajaran

Kualiti Q pengajaranmempengaruhiKualiti Q proses & hasilpembelajaran

FasilitiSokonganpentadbiran


3 aliran ilmu psikologi yang besar mempengaruhi pendekatan membina kurikulum dan pengajaran

3 aliranilmupsikologi yang besarmempengaruhipendekatanmembinakurikulumdanpengajaran


Aliran psikologi behavorisme

Aliranpsikologibehavorisme


Teori teori pembelajaran

Teori-teori Pembelajaran

Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov -latihan

Teori Pelaziman Operan Skinner- Pengukuhan


Teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

  • Latar belakang

  • Pembelajaran adalah perubahan individu yg disebabkn pengalaman

  • Tingkah laku adalah gerak balas yg nyata & dapat diramalkan

  • Pemikiran x dpt dilihat ttp dari tingkah laku, kesimpulan tentang apa yg difikirkn

  • Berkaitan dengan rangsangan & gerak balas


Behaviorism pelaziman klasik pavlov

BehaviorismPELAZIMAN KLASIK PAVLOV

tingkah laku berlaku berulang-ulang disebabkan oleh sesuatu rangsangan yang menyebabkan berlakunya gerak balas


Gerak balas

GERAK BALAS

Apa sahaja tingkah laku

yang timbul akibat rangsangan


Rangsangan

Rangsangan

  • Apa sahaja bentuk tenaga yang menimbulkan gerakbalas.

  • Boleh dikaitkan dengan suatu rangsangan lain untuk menghasilkan pembelajaran.


Peringkat sebelum pelaziman

Peringkat sebelum Pelaziman

Bunyi loceng

Tiada gerak balas

Makanan

(rangsangan tak terlazim)

Air liur

(gerak balas tak terlazim)


Pendidikan

Semasa Pelaziman

Bunyi loceng

Air liur

Makanan

(rangsangan tak terlazim)


Selepas berlakunya perlaziman

Selepas Berlakunya Perlaziman

?

Bunyi loceng

(Ransangan terlazim)

Air liur

(Gerak balas terlazim)


Proses penghapusan

Proses Penghapusan

  • Apabila ransangan terlazim diberi berkali- kali

    tidak di ikuti dengan ransangan tidak terlazim.

    Ini akan menyebabkan tindakan terlazim berlaku

    dan akhirnya akan terhapus sama sekali.


Peneguhan

Peneguhan

  • membina dan mengekalkan gerak balas

  • membangkitkan gerak balas terlazim selepas

  • ransangan terlazim.

Implikasi Peneguhan yang berlaku dalam bilik

Darjah:

Guru memberi peneguhan berbentuk pujian kepada

Muridnya, untuk megalakkan proses pembelajaran.


Pemulihan serta merta

Pemulihan Serta Merta

  • Tindakan hasil dari gerak balas

    terlazim yang telah dihapuskan

  • Hasil penghapusan yang

    mungkin boleh pulih semula

  • Apakah implikasi kepada proses

    Pembelajaran?


Pendidikan

Berlaku gangguan dari pembelajaran baru ke

atas pembelajaran asal dan menyebabkan

kecenderungan yang tidak bergerak balas

terhadap murid-murid


Driskriminasi

Driskriminasi

Di mana manusia atau haiwan boleh dilatih untuk bertindak balas kepada hanya satu objek atau situasi sahaja.

  • Implikasi dalam bilik darjah:

  • Apabila guru dapat memastikan pelajar

  • memberi fokus ransangan yang betul.


Pendidikan

Generalisasi

Objek yang menyerupai satu

dengan lain dan pelajar boleh

bergerak balas terhadap semua


Pendidikan

Aplikasi Prinsip-prinsip Pavlov

Dalam Bilik Darjah


Pendidikan

  • Dapat mengaitkan pengalaman yang positif

  • Bantu pelajar menyelesaikan masalah

  • Meningkatkan keyakinan diri

  • Wujud perbincangan dalam kumpulan


Pengenalan teori pengukuhan

PENGENALAN: TEORI PENGUKUHAN

  • Diperkenalkan oleh B.F Skinner ( 1904-1990 ) ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat

  • Mempercayai bahawa sesuatu tingkahlaku itu di pengaruhi oleh faktor peneguhan sama ada ganjaran atau dendaan

  • Apabila ada rangsangan ia akan diikuti dengan gerakbalas


Eksperimen 1

EKSPERIMEN 1

  • 1 kotak direka khas yang di dalamnya diletak tuas dan jika disentuh makanan akan dikeluarkan

  • Seekor tikus lapar diletakkan ke dalamnya apabila tikus merayau-rayau ia tertekan tuas dan makanan akan keluar

  • Ini diulang beberapa kali dan tikus itu sudah dapat mempelajari bahawa apabila lapar ia akan menarik tuas untuk dapatkan makanan


Sambungan

Sambungan………

  • Dikenali oleh Skinner sebagai pembelajaran melalui pelaziman operan

  • APLIKASI……

  • Pelajar harus mengambil inisiatif sendiri utk bertindak dlm aktiviti dan bkn disebabkan oleh sesuatu rangsangan tertentu dari luar contohnya guru atau ibubapa


Eksperimen 2

EKSPERIMEN 2

  • Satu kotak dipasangkan dengan lampu

  • Tikus hanya mendapat makanan jika ia menekan tuas masa lampu dipasang

  • Makanan tdk dikeluarkan semasa lampu tdk dipasang

  • Dlm beberapa percubaan tikus dpt mendiskriminasikan bhw lampu tersebut sbg satu prasyarat utk dpt mknn


Aplikasi

Aplikasi…………

  • Pelajar sentiasa membuat ulangkaji selama satu jam sehari dan mendapat gred B dlm peperiksaan

  • Ubah strategi kpd 2 jam dan dpt A

  • Belajar semula selama sejam jadi gred dia menurun

  • Ini dpt membuktikan bhw aplikasi yg baik akan membantu pelajar dan sebaliknya


Jenis tingkah laku dan pembelajaran

Jenis tingkah laku dan pembelajaran

  • Tingkahlaku responden/tidak terlazim

  • Pembelajaran secara responden akan wujud selepas stimulasi baru digunakan dgn stimulasi lama

  • Pembelajaran berlaku apabila rangsangan diberi

  • Pembelajaran menjadi pasif tanpa rangsangan dan pembelajaran tdk berlaku


Sambungan1

Sambungan……….

  • Tingkahlaku operan

  • Tingkahlaku ini merupakan gerakbalas yg terhasil dari diri sendiri

  • Proses pembelajaran adalah aktif kerana ia berdasarkan inisiatif diri sendiri tanpa sebarang rangsangan


Peneguhan positif dan negatif

PENEGUHAN POSITIF DAN NEGATIF

  • Peneguhan positif

  • Sesuatu tingkahlaku yg diikuti dgn peneguhan, kebarangkalian bagi gerakbalas operan itu berlaku akan bertambah

  • Peneguhan positif-ganjaran yg mendorong individu cth : pujian, penghargaan, hadiah dll.


Sambungan2

Sambungan……..

  • Peneguhan Negatif

  • Rangsangsan dihapuskan – tujuan menguatkan tingkahlaku positif

  • Cth: Mengarah murid keluar kerana membuat bising – beri peluang pelajar lain belajar

  • Terdpt peneguhan negatif yang boleh menyakiti seseorang individu.Cth 1):Cikgu mempersendakan seorg pelajar dihadapan pelajar lain krn tidak m’jwb soalan.Peneguhan ini tidak akan mengubah sikap murid pelajar sebaliknya


Sambungan3

sambungan

  • Akan menambah kebarangkalian berulangnya tingkah laku operan itu pd masa hadapan.

  • Cth 2:Murid yang didenda kerana tidak boleh menguasai kemahiran matematik kemungkinan akan timbul sikap benci terhadap subjek tersebut.


Kelupaan dan kelenyapan

Kelupaan dan kelenyapan

  • Kelupaan-proses dimana kewujudan tingkah laku bertambah kurang krn peneguhan tidak diberikan dalam tempoh yg agak lama.

  • Kelenyapan-percubaan mengikis sesuatu yg telah dipelajari. Cth:seorang pelajar yg telah belajar konsep matematik spt selalu menghuraikan (a + b)2 sebagai a2 + b2 memerlukan banyak kali tunjuk ajar drpd guru untuk mengikis kesilapannya.


Jadual peneguhan

Jadual peneguhan

  • Peneguhan berterusan-diberi dr peringkat awal hingga dikuasai.

  • Peneguhan Berkala-ikut jadual nisbah atau jadual masa.Jadual peneguhan nisbah ialah peneguhan diberi mengikut bilangan atau kadar sesuatu tingkah laku operan dihasilkan,manakala jadual peneguhan masa diberi mengikut masa yg ditetapkan misalnya 5 minit,1jam, 2 minggu dan sebagainya.

  • Jadual Nisbah terbahagi 2, jadual nisbah tetap dan jadual nisbah berubah.


Sambungan4

sambungan

  • Jadual Masa dibahagikan kpd 2 iaitu :

  • Jadual masa tetap-jum.masa berlalu yg diperlukan unt diberi peneguhan tanpa mengira bil.tingkah laku itu dilakukan.

  • Jadual masa berubah-tidak menetapkan jum.masa tertentu sebelum peneguhan diberikan.


Implikasi teori pengukuhan operan dalam bilik darjah

Implikasi Teori Pengukuhan Operan Dalam Bilik Darjah.


Kesimpulan

Kesimpulan

  • Guru memainkan peranan yang penting dalam memberi peneguhan terhadap murid.

  • Seharusnya bijak melihat keadaan persekitaran sebelum membuat sesuatu tindakan.


What is mastery learning

What is Mastery Learning?

OAn instructional philosophy based on the belief that all students can learn if given the appropriate amount of time and the appropriate instructional opportunities.

Ostudents can achieve mastery when:

the curricular standards are clearly articulated and defined

assessments accurately measure the students’ progress toward performance of the objective(s),

instructional lessons are tightly aligned to the curriculum.


Mastery learning is based on several premises that include

Mastery Learning is based on several premises that include:

·        All individuals can learn

·        People learn in different ways and at different rates.

·        Under favorable learning conditions, the effects of individual differences approach a vanishing point.

·        Uncorrected learning errors are responsible for most learning difficulties.


What defines mastery learning approaches

What defines mastery learning approaches

The organization of time and resources to ensure that students are able to master instructional objectives.

There are many different instructional strategies (small group instruction, cooperative learning, use of differentiation activities, discovery learning, discussion groups, etc.) that teachers use in the classroom that support mastery learning.


What teachers do in mastery learning classrooms

What teachers do in Mastery Learning classrooms?

Teachers determine what the students will know and what they will be able to do after the lesson.

Content is divided into small learning units and tools or processes are developed to check students’ progress and learning.

After the material from the unit is presented, an assessment is administered to determine each student’s progress and to identify areas in which more instruction may be needed (FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT).

Information is given to the student about their learning process (FEEDBACK). This “feedback” reinforces precisely what was most important for the students to learn in each unit of instruction, recognizes what students learned well, identifies the specific concepts on which students need to spend more time and is appropriate for students’ levels of learning.


Pendidikan

A student scoring at a high level of performance based on specific criteria on an assessment will move directly into activities that provide opportunities for them to broaden, expand or deepen their learning (ENRICHMENT) or may be moved on to the next unit of study or group of objectives to be mastered (ACCELERATION).

Students who have not mastered the material are engaged in activities that offer guidance and direction on how they can correct their learning errors and remedy their learning problems (CORRECTIVES). Students are provided with alternative learning methods and then given another formative assessment to check for mastery.

At the end of the unit(s), the teacher evaluates the final competence of students by giving a SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT covering the objectives of the unit. After the assessment is given, teachers evaluate the results and plan next steps.


Proses pembelajaran masteri

Unit Pembelajaran 1

Penentuan Hasil Pembelajaran

Pengajaran & Pembelajaran

Penilaian

Ya

Tidak

Tindakan Susulan Aktiviti Pengayaan

Tindakan Susulan Aktiviti Pemulihan

Sudahkah murid menguasai?

Ya

Teruskan

Unit Pembelajaran 2

PROSES PEMBELAJARAN MASTERI


Pendidikan

“Mastery learning is usually implemented through a

careful process of organization and planning, followed by

specific procedures for classroom application and student

assessment and evaluation. Mastery learning does not

challenge teachers’ professionalism or academic freedom,

but instead offers a useful instructional tool that can be

flexibly applied in a variety of teaching situations.

Although it is not an educational cure-all, mastery

learning significantly increases the positive influence

teachers can have on student learning”

(Guskey, 1997).


The advantages of mastery learning

The advantages of mastery learning

Students have prerequisite skills to move to next unit

Requires teachers to do task analysis, thereby becoming better prepared to teach the unit

Requires teachers to state objectives before designating activities

Can break cycle of failure (especially important for minority and disadvantaged students)


The disadvantages of mastery learning

Not all students will progress at same pace;

this requires students who have demonstrated mastery to wait for those who have not or to individualize instruction

Must have a variety of materials for reteaching:

Must have several tests for each unit

If only objective tests are used, can lead to memorizing and learning specifics rather than higher levels of learning

The disadvantages of mastery learning


Aliran psikologi kognitif konstruktivisme

Aliranpsikologikognitif: konstruktivisme


Constructivist teaching methods

Constructivist teaching methods

  • Based on the constructivist learning theory

    The constructivist learning theory says that children learn best when they construct a personal understanding based on experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences

  • learning should build upon knowledge that a student already knows

  • this prior knowledge is called a schema.

  • suggest learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in the construction of knowledge rather than passively receiving it


Characteristics of constructivist teaching

Characteristics of Constructivist Teaching

One of the primary goals of using constructivist teaching is that students learn how to learn by giving them the training to take initiative for their own learning experiences.

  • the learners are actively involved

  • the environment is democratic

  • the activities are interactive and student-centered

  • the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous


Examples of constructivist activities

Examples of constructivist activities

  • Constructivist classroom, students work primarily in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic. There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas

  • Traditional classroom, students work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered to and are guided by a textbook


Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms

Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms

  • Experimentation: students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results.

  • Research projects: students research a topic and can present their findings to the class.

  • Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class discussions.

  • Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience.

  • Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods.


Role of teachers

Role of teachers

  • In the constructivist classroom, the teacher’s role is to prompt and facilitate discussion.

  • The teacher’s main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead them to develop their own conclusions on the subject.

  • 3 major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments:

    • Modeling

    • Coaching

    • Scaffolding


Constructivist learning environments cles

Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs)

  • Jonassen has proposed a model for developing constructivist learning environments (CLEs) around a specific learning goal i.e. from least to most complex but not overly structured.

  • Question or issue

  • Case study

  • Long-term Project

  • Problem (multiple cases and projects integrated at the curriculum level)

    students learn content and theory in order to solve the problem. This is different from traditional objectivist teaching where the theory would be presented first and problems would be used afterwards topractice theory.


Pendidikan

  • Depending on students' prior experiences, related cases and scaffolding may be necessary for support. Instructors also need to provide an authentic context for tasks, plus information resources, cognitive tools, and collaborative tools


Constructivist assessment

Constructivist assessment

  • Traditionally, assessment in the classrooms is based on testing. In this style, it is important for the student to produce the correct answers.

  • In constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge is viewed as being just as important as the product. Thus, assessment is based not only on tests, but also on observation of the student, the student’s work, and the student’s points of view.


Some assessment strategies include

Some assessment strategies include:

  • Oral discussions. The teacher presents students with a “focus” question and allows an open discussion on the topic.

  • KWL(H) Chart (What we know, What we want to know, What we have learned, How we know it). This technique can be used throughout the course of study for a particular topic, but is also a good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the progress of the student throughout the course of study.

  • Mind Mapping. In this activity, students list and categorize the concepts and ideas relating to a topic.

  • Hands-on activities. These encourage students to manipulate their environments or a particular learning tool. Teachers can use a checklist and observation to assess student success with the particular material.

  • Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing the course of study.


Lesson 1

Lesson 1

OBJECTIVE:

  • The student will practice making observations by:

  • Observing an unburned candle and recording the observations. ( the number of observations should be left open ended).

  • Observing a burning candle and recording all observations. ( the number of observations should be left open ended....but tell students that 30 or more different observations is not impossible).

  • Sharing and compiling a list of observations with the entire class.


Pendidikan

  • PROCEDURE:

  • Set up candle as instructed.

  • Describe the candle while it is not burning.

  • Light the candle carefully.

  • Let the candle to burn for about 10 - 15 minutes making all of the observations you possibly can. Write your observations down.

  • Blow the candle out. Continue to observe the candle. Write your observations down.


Pendidikan

  • FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION:

  • Remove a wick from a candle. Place the end of the wick in a dish of water. Light the wick. What do you observe? Place the wick in a dish of lamp oil or kerosene. What do you observe? What conclusions can you make? Is it necessary to have a material that burns in order to make a lamp or candle? Is it necessary to have solid wax to make a candle?

  • Cut away some wax from the base of candle to expose the wick. Place the exposed wick in a dish of water. Light the candle. Light the candle. Predict if it will continue to burn or not. Record your observations and conclusions.


Aliran psikologi sosial

Aliranpsikologisosial

Psikologisosialdanmikrososiologimemberitumpuanterhadapkesankepada

perkembanganpemikirandansosio-emosiindividuapabilaiaberinteraksidanberkomunikasidenganorang lain, baiksecaraberduaatausecarakumpulan.

Seseorangbanyakbelajardariperanannyadalamsesuatukumpulan: dalam

keluarga, rakansebaya, kumpulandalamkelasataukumpulandalamkokurikulum.

Melaluiperbincangandanaktivitikerjasamasecarakooperatifmisalnya, iamemahamiorang lain, meniru(modeling) orang lain, dari segi bahasa, cara bekerja, sikap dan nilai.


Pendidikan

Kesan daripada ini adalah

  • Seseorang belajar nilai menghormati orang lain, sikap bertolak-ansur dalam kerja kumpulan,bertanggung jawab untuk menyiapkan kerja kumpulan dan sebagainya.

  • Pendekatan pembelajaran kooperatif atau projek kumpulan dan pengajaran rakan sebaya (peer teaching) adalah di antara pendekatanpedagogi yang berasaskanteoripsikologisosialdanmikrososiologi.


Pendidikan

Berdasarkantigaalirandisiplinilmudiatasterbentuklahbeberapa Model Pengajaran.

Model Tyler,

Model ASSURE,

Model Masteri

Model Inkuiri.

Model UPSI.


Model tyler

Model Tyler

Salahsatu model atausistempembangunankurikulumdanpengajaranklasik yang banyak

mempengaruhiperancangankurikulumdanpengajarandisekolah, ialah model Ralph Tyler (1949).


Pendidikan

Mengikut Tyler (1949), pendekatan membina kurikulum dan pengajaran mengandungi langkah utama seperti di bawah;

Objektifpengajaran (Kenapamengajar?).

Kurikulum, iaitukandungansesuatupengajaran (Apa yang hendak

diajar?).

Susunanisikandungan: turutan unit-unit pelajaran (Bagaimanakah

bahan yang hendakdiajaritudisusundalambeberapa unit pelajaran?).

4. Penilaianhasilpembelajaran (Bagaimanakahhasilpembelajaran

hendakdiukurdandinilai?)

Hasilpenilaianpembelajarankemudiannyadigunakanuntukmenambahbaikempatkomponendiatas.


Model assure

Model ASSURE

Model iniberasaskanbuku Robert Gagne, Events of Instruction (1992). Model iniamatbergunauntuk guru membentukpengajarandibilikdarjah.

A Analyze: Buatanalisiskesediaandangayapembelajaranmurid.

S State: Nyatakanobjektifatauhasilpembelajaran; darjah

prestasi yang bolehditerima

S Select: Pilihkaedah, media danbahanpengajaran-pembelajaran.

U Utilise: Buat ‘preview’ bahandan media: sediakannyadanlaksanakan.

R Require: Tentukanmuridmengambilbahagianaktifdalampembelajaran: mencaridanmembuatanalisismaklumat.

E Evaluate: Menilaihasilpembelajarandanbuatpenambahbaikanbahandanproses

pembelajaran.


An old adage states tell me and i forget show me and i remember involve me and i understand

An old adage states: "Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand."


Pendidikan

involvement in learning implies possessing skills and attitudes that permit you to seek resolutions to questions and issues while you construct new knowledge.


Inquiry

Inquiry

"Inquiry" is defined as "a seeking for truth, information, or knowledge -- seeking information by questioning."


Pendidikan

  • Individuals carry on the process of inquiry from the time they are born until they die

  • This is true even though they might not reflect upon the process.

  • our traditional educational system has worked in a way that discourages the natural process of inquiry


Pendidikan

  • Students become less prone to ask questions as they move through the grade levels

  • In traditional schools, students learn not to ask too many questions, instead to listen and repeat the expected answers


Pendidikan

  • Useful application of inquiry learning involves several factors: a context for questions, a framework for questions, a focus for questions, and different levels of questions

  • Well-designed inquiry learning produces knowledge formation that can be widely applied.


Pendidikan

  • Memorizing facts and information is not the most important skill in today's world

  • Facts change, and information is readily available -- what's needed is an understanding of how to get and make sense of the mass of data.


Pendidikan

  • In the past, our country's success depended on our supply of natural resources

  • Today, it depends upon a workforce that "works smarter."


Pendidikan

  • Inquiry implies a "need or want to know" premise

  • Inquiry is not so much seeking the right answer -- because often there is none -- but rather seeking appropriate resolutions to questions and issues

  • For educators, inquiry implies emphasis on the development of inquiry skills and the nurturing of inquiring attitudes or habits of mind that will enable individuals to continue the quest for knowledge throughout life.


Pendidikan

  • For modern education, the skills and the ability to continue learning should be the most important outcomes


How does it differ from the traditional approach

How does it differ from the traditional approach?

  • traditional approach to learning is focused on mastery of content, with less emphasis on the development of skills and the nurturing of inquiring attitudes

  • Students are the receivers of information, and the teacher is the dispenser


Pendidikan

  • Much of the assessment of the learner is focused on the importance of "one right answer

  • ." Traditional education is more concerned with preparation for the next grade level and in-school success than with helping a student learn to learn throughout life.


Pendidikan

  • Traditional classrooms tend to be closed systems where information is filtered through layers to students

  • the use of resources is limited to what is available in the classroom or within the school

  • Use of technology is focused on learning about the technology rather than its application to enhanced learning.


Inquiry1

Inquiry

  • student centered

  • more emphasis on "how we come to know" and less on "what we know."

  • Students are more involved in the construction of knowledge through active involvement


Pendidikan

  • The more interested and engaged students are by a subject or project, the easier it will be for them to construct in-depth knowledge of it

  • Assessment is focused on determining the progress of skills development in addition to content understanding


Pendidikan

  • Inquiry learning is concerned with in-school success, but it is equally concerned with preparation for life-long learning.

  • classrooms are open systems where students are encouraged to search and make use of resources beyond the classroom and the school


Pendidikan

  • use technology to connect students appropriately with local and world communities which are rich sources of learning and learning materials

  • replace lesson plans with facilitated learning plans that account for slight deviations while still keeping an important learning outcome in focus


Pendidikan

  • done in lectures that provoke students to think and question.


Aktiviti ip

AKTIVITI IP

  • Perhatikan gambar yang diberikan


Aktiviti ip1

AKTIVITI IP

  • Apakah persoalan yang timbul dalam

    pemikiran tuan/puan


Aktiviti ip2

AKTIVITI IP

  • Tuliskan persoalan-persoalan yang timbul di pemikiran anda.


Persoalan tersebut mewujudkan sifat ingin tahu membuat gambaran mental metakognisi berlaku

Persoalan tersebut mewujudkan :Sifat ingin tahuMembuat gambaran mentalMetakognisi berlaku


Aktiviti ip3

AKTIVITI IP

4. Tuliskan jawapan untuk persoalan-persoalan yang timbul di pemikiran anda tadi


Hasil aktiviti

HASIL AKTIVITI

Membuat Inferens yang memfokus kepada

persoalan yang timbul dalam pemikiran daripada pemerhatian terhadap gambar yang diberi.


Jangkaan jawapan

Jangkaan jawapan

Sisa kilang

Kumbahan domestik

Punca ikan mati

Air yang tercemar

Kumbahan daripada kawasan pertanian

Hujan asid


Pendidikan

Jangkaan jawapan

  • Maklumat tambahan

  • Rujukan

  • Pengalaman

Hipotesis dapat dibina


Menguji hipotesis

Menguji Hipotesis

Jika hipotesis itu benar

Penemuan telah diperolehi

Jika hipotesis itu tak benar

Rujuk kepada maklumat yang lain dan bina hipotesis yang baru untuk di uji


Model ip samb

MODEL IP – samb…

Data /

maklumat berkaitan

Perihalkan

Hipotesis

PENEMUAN

Susun data / Hubungkait


Model ip samb1

MODEL IP – samb…

  • Berhenti

  • Semak semula

  • Tambah kajian

  • Dapatkan penemuan lain

Maklumat diintegrasikan


Pendidikan

Apakah pandangan tokoh-tokoh pendidikan mengenai kaitan antara pengajaran dan pembelajaran?

migFPA170604


Pendidikan

2. Definasi pembelajaran:

Kamus Dewan, edisi baru

pembelajaran – proses (kegiatan) belajar

(belajar – berusaha utk memperoleh ilmu pengetahuan (sesuatu kepandaian dll), menuntut ilmu pengetahuan dll, menjalani latihan dsb.

(mempelajari – belajar utk mengetahui sesuatu dgn mendalam)

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Pendidikan

…smb. Definasi Pembelajaran

Pembelajaran – perubahan tingkah laku murid/pelajar (Rahil, Habibah dan Kamariah, 1997)

Menurut Mok (1993) yang memetik

Gagne: pembelajaran sebagai perubahan tingkah laku atau kebolehan seseorang yang dapat dikekalkan, tidak termasuk perubahan yang disebabkan oleh proses pertumbuhan.

Francois: pembelajaran merangkumi semua perubahan tingkah laku yang agak kekal dan yang dihasilkan melalui pengalaman.

Lindgran dan Byrne: pembelajaran adalah perubahan tingkah laku seseorang yang dapat diperlihatkan.

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Pendidikan

… smb. Definasi Pembelajaran

Amir Awang (1992) memetik definasi Woolfolk dan McCune-Nicolich:

… suatu proses yang berlaku di dalam diri seseorang… pembentukan perkaitan-perkaitan baru, ataupun potensi-potensi untuk tindak balas yang baru. Pembelajaran membawa perubahan yang agak kekal di dalam kebolehan seseorang.

Brown (2000): “…acquiring, or getting of knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction”.

Woolfolk (1995): “…a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior caused by experience”.

migFPA170604


Pedagogy

Pedagogy

Pedagogy (pèd-e-go´jê) literally means the art and science of educating children and often is used as a synonym for teaching. More accurately, pedagogy embodies teacher-focused education.


Andragogy

Andragogy

  • Andragogy, initially defined as "the art and science of helping adults learn," has taken on a broader meaning since Knowles' first edition. The term currently defines an alternative to pedagogy and refers to learner-focused education for people of all ages.


The andragogic model asserts that five issues be considered and addressed in formal learning

The andragogic model asserts that five issues be considered and addressed in formal learning.

  • letting learners know why something is

    important to learn,

    (2) showing learners how to direct themselves through information, and

    (3) relating the topic to the learners' experiences. In addition,

    (4) people will not learn until they are ready and motivated to learn. Often this

    (5) requires helping them overcome inhibitions, behaviors, and beliefs about learning.


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