THE GLOBEC GOAL
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THE GLOBEC GOAL To advance our understanding of the structure and functioning of the global ocean ecosystem, its major subsystems, and its response to physical forcing so that a capability can be developed to forecast the responses of the marine ecosystem to global change. . GLOBEC STRUCTURE.

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GLOBEC Scientific Steering Committee

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Globec scientific steering committee

THE GLOBEC GOALTo advance our understanding of the structure and functioning of the global ocean ecosystem, its major subsystems, and its response to physical forcing so that a capability can be developed to forecast the responses of the marine ecosystem to global change.


Globec scientific steering committee

GLOBEC STRUCTURE

GLOBEC Scientific Steering Committee

REGIONAL PROGRAMMES

PICES- Climate Change

and Carrying Capacity

ICES- Cod and

Climate Change

Southern Ocean GLOBEC

Small Pelagic fish And Climate Change

RESEARCH FOCI

1 - Retrospective Analysis WG

2 - Process Studies WG

3 - Prediction and Modelling WG

4 - Feedback from Ecosystem Changes WG

GLOBEC I.P.O.

National Activities

Multinational Activities

Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Mexico, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine, USA, UK

BENEFIT (S. AFRICA]

NATFISH (N. AFRICA)

OFCCP (Eq. Pacific)

LIFECO (EC]

TASC (EC)…


Globec scientific steering committee

Cod catch at Greenland

500

3

400

2.5

300

2

Landings in thousand tonnes

Temperature

1.5

200

100

1

0

0.5

1880

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

REGIONAL

PROGRAMMES

Cod and Climate Change Programme (ICES-CCC)

This programme investigates the effect of climate variability on cod stock fluctuations, ranging from the effects of small-scale turbulence on encounter rates between fish larvae and their prey, to large-scale effects of inter-decadal changes in wind fields on circulation and transport of heat and young fish.

Cod catches have followed environmental trends in recent decades. Has fishing limited the capacity of cod to respond to favourable environments?


Globec scientific steering committee

REGIONAL

PROGRAMMES

Climate Change and Carrying Capacity (PICES-CCCC)

This activity develops a theoretical and mathematical framework which extends the concept of carrying capacity into the multi-species ecosystem domain. It addresses how climate change affects ecosystem structure and the productivity of key biological species at all trophic levels in the North Pacific.

1.0

Shrimp

Cod/ Pollock

0.6

Flatfish

0.2

Other

1971

1998

1962

1953

1989

1980

The community structure of the North Pacific has changed over the last decades. How is this affecting the functioning of the system?


Globec scientific steering committee

Krill recruitment

1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999

10

8

6

4

2

Month

1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999

Area covered with ice

REGIONAL

PROGRAMMES

Southern Ocean Programme (SO-GLOBEC)

This programme is focused on understanding how physical forces influence population dynamics and predator/ prey interactions between key species.

Antarctic krill has peaks of abundance on “good-ice years”. How do climate fluctuations (and thus ice cover) affect krill and its predators?


Globec scientific steering committee

European sardine

Chilean Jack mackerel

100

Japanese sardine

Californian sardine

Peruvian sardine

Alaska pollock

Pacific salmon

-100

Catch (relative units)

-300

-500

1910

1930

1950

1970

1990

REGIONAL

PROGRAMMES

Small Pelagic Fishes and Climate Change (SPACC)

The long-range goal is to forecast how the productivity of small pelagic fish populations will be altered by climate variability and change. SPACC will involve process studies, based on comparisons of standard measurements from different ecosystems, and retrospective studies built around palaeoecological and genetic data.

Pelagic fish globally seem to fluctuate in synchrony. What drives this patterns?


Globec scientific steering committee

GLOBEC STRUCTURE

GLOBEC Scientific Steering Committee

REGIONAL PROGRAMMES

PICES- Climate Change

and Carrying Capacity

ICES- Cod and

Climate Change

Southern Ocean GLOBEC

Small Pelagic fish And Climate Change

RESEARCH FOCI

1 - Retrospective Analysis WG

2 - Process Studies WG

3 - Prediction and Modelling WG

4 - Feedback from Ecosystem Changes WG

GLOBEC I.P.O.

National Activities

Multinational Activities

Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Mexico, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine, USA, UK

BENEFIT (S. AFRICA]

NATFISH (N. AFRICA)

OFCCP (Eq. Pacific)

LIFECO (EC]

TASC (EC)…


Globec scientific steering committee

GLOBEC

Focus 4

“Feedbacks from Changes in Marine Ecosystem Structure”

General Objective:

To co-operate with other ocean, atmospheric, terrestrial and social global change research programmes to estimate feedbacks from changes in marine ecosystem structure to the global earth system


Globec scientific steering committee

  • GLOBEC Focus 4, Activity 4.3

  • Social Impacts of Changes in Marine Ecosystems

  • Working Group Goals:

  • To understand the interactions between marine coastal communities and global changes in marine ecosystems;

  • To understand the capacity of these communities to adjust to these changes;

  • To understand the consequences of these adjustments for marine ecosystems.


Globec scientific steering committee

  • Several issues complicate study of these interactions:

  • Scale

    • What are the scales at which marine ecosystems and coastal communities interact?

    • What are the scales of environmental change compared with scales on which humans have the ability to change and adapt.

    • How to move between scales when the drivers are global but the impacts local?

  • Knowledge

    • Open” and “Closed” knowledge systems – e.g. publicly available, local knowledge, or group-based.

    • How best to exchange and to incorporate scientific and local knowledge into decision-making?

  • Values

    • How to assign value to ecosystem states, e.g. is an system which supports Atlantic cod inherently better than one that supports northern shrimp?


Globec scientific steering committee

Example case study: Atlantic cod in Newfoundland

Example case study: Atlantic cod in Newfoundland

  • The collapse of cod has been severe social disruption in Newfoundland. In addition to the social displacements, there have been changes in the ways that coastal communities use the marine ecosystems:

    • have expanded into previously un-fished species,

    • have expanded into new locations,

    • are using previous fishing grounds for species other than cod.

  • Result is potential for significant negative impacts on the marine ecosystem, and on the recovery of cod.

Source:

The Newfoundland Fishery: A Descriptive Analysis

Noel Roy (Memorial University)

Symposium on the Efficiency of North Atlantic Fisheries; Iceland, September 12-13, 1997

http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~noelroy/NfFishery.text.html


Globec scientific steering committee

  • Working Group Approach

  • Develop a review/appraisal paper on the topic “What are the impacts of marine ecosystem changes on coastal communities?”.

  • Case studies might include: Peru and changes induced by El Nino oscillations; NW Atlantic groundfish collapses

  • Explore “significant issues”, starting with “Scale” (a MS has been submitted)

  • Develop models coupling marine ecosystem changes with the socio-economic system.

  • Develop active links with other relevant programs,

  • e.g. GECaFS, by exploring these issues for the marine ecosystems of Peru, Chile and Ecuador; or possibly the Caribbean?


Globec scientific steering committee

Countries participating in GLOBEC activities at national or Regional level

USA

Canada

Mexico

Peru

Chile

Brazil

Angola

Namibia

South Africa

Morocco

Mauritania

Senegal

Australia

New Zealand

New Caledonia

Japan

Korea

China

Russia

Ukraine

Turkey

Spain

Portugal

Italy

Germany

France

UK

Netherlands

Denmark

Norway

For more information: Contact Manuel Barange (GLOBEC Executive Officer), [email protected], or Ian Perry (Focus 4 co-chair), [email protected]


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