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Range Arguments

- Can all math functions be used with a range argument?
- NO! May get error or may get one value, depending on where the formula is entered relative to the range.
- Correct—Enter formula in terms of first cell in range, then copy/paste to “iterate”
- (see emptys.xls in examples/solutions)

Ranges that include different types of cells

- How do mathematical functions such as sum, max, average, count treat cells that are empty or have text?
- What do the functions averageA, countA, maxA do instead?

Logical Combinations

- And(logical1,logical2,…) produces TRUE when all are true, otherwise FALSE
- OR(logical1,logical2,…) produces FALSE when all are false, otherwise TRUE (“inclusive or”)
- NOT(logical1) produces TRUE when logical1 is false, and produces FALSE when logical2 is true

The IF Function

- IF(logical expression, value_when_true, value_when_false)
- =If(B3>5,C2^2,”Carl”) put in cell D2 would cause D2 to display 64
- Copy & paste to cell D1 would cause D1 to display ?

Information Functions

- ISBLANK(cell) is TRUE when cell is empty
- ISTEXT(cell) is TRUE when cell has text
- Note the difference between ISTEXT(“1”) and ISTEXT(1)

- ISNA(value) is TRUE when value is the #N/A error value

COUNTIF

- COUNTIF(range, condition to be counted)
- =Countif(a3:a12,5) returns the number of times 5 appears in the range
- =countif(a3:a12,”Bob”) returns the number of times Bob appears in the range
- =countif(a3:a12,D3) returns the number of times the value in D3 appears in the range
- =countif(a3:a12,”>5”) returns the number of times a value greater than 5 appears in the range

COUNTIF

- =countif(a3:a12,”=5”) returns the number of times 5 appears in the range
- =countif(a3:a12,”=D3”) does NOT return the number of times the value in D3 appears in the range
- =countif(a3:a12,”>D3”) does NOT return the number of times a value greater than the value in D3 appears in the range
- =countif(a3:a12,”>”&D3) retuns the number of times a value greater than the value in D3 appears in the range

SUMIF

- SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)
- Range is the cells to examine for meeting the criteria
- Criteria is the condition to be met
- Sum_range is the corresponding cells to add when criteria is met

- =sumif(a2:a5,”>0”,b2:b5) adds those cells in b2 thru b5 whose corresponding a2 thru a5 value is positive

SUMIF

- The same limitations as countif apply with regard to the criteria including relational operators and cell references
- =sumif(a2:a5,”>c3”,b2:b5) does NOT correctly add those cells in b2 thru b5 whose corresponding a2 thru a5 value is greater than the value in cell c3
- (see countif.xls in examples)

Table Lookups & References

- Vlookup & HLookup—used to look for a “target” in first column or row of a table & return a “corresponding” value from another column or row of the table
- Lookup—used to look for a “target” in a “vector” (single row or column) & return a value in the corresponding position in another “vector” (single row or column)
- Match—used to find the relative position of a “target” in a vector
- Index—used to return the value in a specified relative position in a table

VLookup & Hlookup Specifics

- First argument is target (what you are looking for)
- Second argument is range in which you are looking (limited to leftmost column of range for vlookup, topmost row of range for hlookup)
- Third argument is relative column(for vlookup) or row (for hlookup) from which corresponding value is to be returned. Must have been included in range.
- Fourth argument is TRUE or FALSE, used as a “flag” & is optional—but if omitted assumes TRUE
- FALSE—does not assume column/row being searched is already sorted, requires an exact match
- TRUE—requires column/row being searched is already sorted in ascending order, & that you will accept the largest value <= target

VLookup Example

What formula can we enter in E15 so that when we enter a name in D15, E15 will display that contestant’s score from the Canadian judge?

VLookup Example

=vlookup(d15,a8:h11,5,false)

If we enter “Yvonne” in d15, E15 displays 5

=vlookup(d15,a8:h11,5)

If we enter “Sonia” in d15, E15 displays 8.8—which is wrong! Why?

Match(target,vector,flag)

- Searches row or column for “target”, returning its relative position in the row or column
- Flag can be
- 1 which means vector is sorted in ascending order, in which case returns largest value <= target
- 0 which means exact match required, vector need not be sorted
- -1 which means vector is sorted in descending order, in which case returns smallest value >=target

Match Example

What formula can we enter in E17 so that it will display the relative row corresponding to the winner of the contest?

=match(max(h8:h11),h8:h11,0)

Produces 4

Index(table,row,column)

- Used to extract a value from a table based on its relative row & column position
- Index(b3:d5,2,3) would display value in cell d4
- Index(b3:b5,2) would display value in cell b4
- Index(b3:d3,2) would display value in cell c3
- Can “nest” match inside index to locate a position & return a corresponding value

Index Example

What formula can we enter in E17 so that it will display the name of the winner of the contest?

=index(a8:a11, match( max(h8:h11) ,h8:h11,0) )

Produces Sonia

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