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ARINC’s Role in AMDAR Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting System (MDCRS). March 23, 2009 Al Homans Sr. Program Manager [email protected] Introduction to ARINC. ARINC has provided information and communications services for the airlines and others since 1929.

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arinc s role in amdar meteorological data collection and reporting system mdcrs

ARINC’s Role in AMDARMeteorological Data Collection and Reporting System (MDCRS)

March 23, 2009

Al Homans

Sr. Program Manager

[email protected]

introduction to arinc
Introduction to ARINC
  • ARINC has provided information and communications services for the airlines and others since 1929.
  • We operate one of the most flexible and sophisticated private networks in the world to ensure mission-critical communications for more than 700 transportation industry companies and government agencies, including:
    • Approximately 100 airlines worldwide
    • FAA and National Weather Service
  • For the commercial aviation industry, we provide a global air/ground communications network with voice and data services for airline operations control and air traffic control.
  • Headquarters in Annapolis, MD, with offices and facilities to serve customers in 140 countries. Asia-Pacific Division headquartered in Singapore.
air ground communications services
Air-Ground Communications Services
  • HF/VHF Voice
  • VHF Data Link ACARS/VDLM2
  • SATCOM
  • HF Data Link (HFDL)

Virtual 100% assurance of message delivery

air ground communications services4

Communications Management Unit (CMU)

  • Air Traffic Services Unit (ATSU)
  • AIMS
  • Aircraft router
  • AOA

Aircraft

Conditioning

Monitoring

System

CMU/ATSU/AIMS

Printer

Multi-functional

Cockpit

Display Unit

VHF Data Radio

(VDR)

Flight Management

System

Central

Maintenance

Computer

  • VHF Digital Radio (VDR)
  • Digital, multimode radio
  • Voice: 25 kHz, 8.33 kHz
  • Data: ACARS, VDL/AOA-ATN

VHF

Antenna

Air-Ground Communications Services
  • Airlines use VHF air/ground data link service to communicate air traffic control, airline operational control, and airline administrative control between ground-based organizations and the cockpit.
typical data link applications
Typical Data Link Applications

Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS)

Taxi

From Aircraft

Link test/clock

Update

Fuel/crew information

Delay reports

Out

To Aircraft

PDC

ATIS

Weight & balance

Airport analysis

V-speeds flight

Plan-hard copy

Load FMC

Departure

From Aircraft

Engine data

Ascent Weather

reports

To Aircraft

Flight plan

Updated weather

En route

From Aircraft

Position reports

Weather reports

Delay info/ETA

Voice request

Engine info

Maintenance info

To Aircraft

ATC oceanic clearances

Weather reports

Re-clearances

Ground voice request

(SELCAL)

Take-off

From Aircraft

Off

Approach

From Aircraft

Provisioning

Gate requests

ETA

Special requests

Engine info

Maintenance infoDescent Weather

reports

To Aircraft

Gate assignments

Connecting gates

Passenger & crew

ATIS

Landing

From Aircraft

On

Taxi

From Aircraft

In

Fuel info

Crew info

Fault data

(from central

maintenance

computer)

history of mdcrs
History of MDCRS
  • In late 1980s the concept of an automated aircraft reporting system for collecting weather observations was developed.
  • FAA and NWS funded implementation and operation of the Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting Service (MDCRS).
    • ARINC fielded MDCRS in 1991
    • 3 Participating airlines; Delta, Northwest, United
  • American, FedEx, and UPS participation added.
  • Southwest joined in 2005.
  • ARINC has continually provided the service under contract with the FAA.
importance of mdcrs
Importance of MDCRS
  • MDCRS is an important data sources for aviation weather forecasts.
    • Data show temperature inversions that forecast ceiling and visibility at airports in the LA basin.
    • Useful in forecasting wind gusts & LLWS in terminal areas.
    • Used in RUC model for aviation forecasts.
  • Benefits to the airlines
    • Accurate wind forecasts enable efficient routing and fuel savings
    • Greater predictability of weather hazards
    • Improved forecasting of local conditions, freezing levels, icing, phases of precipitation, wind shear profiles and turbulence, potential for fog.
    • More accurate forecasts of temperature, wind, clouds, and storms.

MDCRS has become an extremely useful data source enabling a significantly better understanding of atmospheric conditions. (American Meteorological Society, Feb. 2003)

airline participation
Airline Participation
  • Today’s numbers
    • 7 participating airlines
      • American, Delta, FedEx, Northwest, United, UPS, Southwest
    • 1500 aircraft report Winds and Temps
    • 100 UAL a/c report Turbulence (EDR)
    • 16 UPS 757s report Water Vapor
    • >100,000 observations per day, >3M per month.

High resolution 3-D meteorological data from commercial aircraft have been shown to improve the accuracy of forecast, from short term (1 hour or less) to 1 week time projections.

airline participation no of observations
Airline Participation – No. of Observations
  • 3,291,986 Observations from 1,462 aircraft – June 2006
content of typical mdcrs messages
Content of Typical MDCRS Messages
  • ACARS Header info contains Aircraft ID, Departure Station, Destination Station. (23 – 27 char.)
  • Time of Observation – Day, Hour, Minute (6 char.)
  • Latitude in Deg, Min, Tenths (6 char.)
  • Longitude in Deg, Min, Tenths (7 char.)
  • Pressure Altitude, feet (4 char.)
  • Wind Direction (3 char.)
  • Wind Speed (3 char.)
  • Static Air Temperature – degrees C (4 char.)
  • Roll Angle Flag (1 char.)
  • Phase of Flight (when available) (4 char.)
  • Turbulence (when available) (4 or 5 char.)
  • Icing (when available) (4 char.)
  • Water Vapor Mixing Ratio (when available) (4 char.)
water vapor sensor system wvss
Water Vapor Sensor System (WVSS)
  • ARINC is working with SpectraSensors, Inc., to manufacture and install 31 Water Vapor Sensor Systems on 737-300 aircraft operated by Southwest Airlines and to replace 25 WVSS on 757-200 UPS aircraft.
  • WVSS is an upgraded version of the sensor installed and flown on UPS aircraft in 2005 and 2006.
  • Current program status
    • Design completed and reviewed in March 2008
    • 3 units in evaluation at NWS
    • 2 units in qualification testing to complete aircraft certification process
    • Certification process expected to complete next month.
    • Installation on aircraft start in April - May.
mdcrs data processing by arinc

Computers

Airline

NADIN II

BUFR

Messages

MDCRS Data Processing by ARINC

GlobalLink

VHF

AviNet

NOAA/OAR RUC Dev

NOAA/OAR

ESRL/GSD

NOAA/OAR AMDAR Page

Central

Processor

NOAA/NWS

NCEP

ARINC Packet

Network

NOAA/NWS“Gateway”

BUFR

NOAA/NWS NOAAPORT

Messages

ACARS

GTS

  • Remove message headers
  • Extract raw wx data, validate format
  • Remove airline and flight IDs
  • Convert to binary (BUFR) format

MDCRS Server

more than 100 000 observations per day
More than 100,000 Observations per Day
  • Some regions provide few observations and some provide more than are necessary.
  • Adding aircraft to improve coverage in data-sparse regions will increase data overall.
  • 86% of soundings come from 51 airports; 13 airports account for 31% of soundings.
  • NOAA Objective - Minimum 1 sounding/2 hours from 100 geographically dispersed airports.
optimization concept
Optimization Concept
  • NOAA desires a minimum of 1 sounding every 2 hours from 100 geographically dispersed airports.
  • Model for implementing an optimization system
    • 2 soundings per hour from 25 major airports
    • 1 sounding per hour from 15 airports
    • 1 sounding every 2 hours from 60 smaller airports
    • 1,700 soundings per day from 100 airports (assuming 18 hours of operation each day).

* Sounding collection tuned to more fully

reach 100 airport/2 hour goal.

* Better data coverage and cost effectiveness.

  • Enable selection of specific aircraft to provide only essential data to meet needs of forecasting agencies.
  • Reduce number of meteorological reports being transmitted from aircraft without degrading forecasting capabilities.
typical arinc 620 reporting

Top of Climb

(TOC)

Top of Descent

(TOD)

Taxi

Take-Off

Departure

En Route

Approach

Land

Taxi

60 sec interval to ON

6 sec interval to 90 secs from OFF

20 sec interval to 510 secs to TOC

3 min. interval to TOD

Typical ARINC 620 Reporting

91 samples during a typical 2:15 flight

  • Aircraft must be able to accept commands from the ground to configure reporting.
summary
Summary
  • Commercial aircraft are an important source meteorological observations for NOAA through the MDCRS program.
  • U.S. airlines have been participating in AMDAR/MDCRS for 20 years.
  • Currently about 1,500 aircraft operated by 7 air carriers provide over 100,000 observations a day.
  • While more data are received from many areas, some areas are not well covered.
  • More aircraft can be added.
  • Water Vapor Sensors can be added
  • Optimization systems can be used to select aircraft and flights that provide the most useful data and potentially more cost effective.
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