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WORKSHOP OF BIMSTEC COUNTRIES ON SHARING OF EXPERIENCES IN DEVELOPING HYDRO PROJECTS COUNTRY PAPER-INDIA. INDIA AT A GLANCE. POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA. ORGANISATIONAL SET UP OF INDIAN POWER SECTOR. MINISTRY OF POWER CENTRAL ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY (CEA) .
SHARING OF EXPERIENCES IN DEVELOPING HYDRO PROJECTS
MINISTRY OF POWER
CENTRAL ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY (CEA).
CENTRAL ELECTRICITY REGULATORY COMMISSION.
STATE ELECTRICITY REGULATORY COMMISSION
CENTRAL TRANSMISSION UTILITY
STATE TRANSMISSION UTILITIES
STATE ELECTRICITY BOARDS/UTILITIES
CENTRAL POWER SECTOR UTILITIES (CPSUs)
C H I N A
MAJOR RIVER SYSTEMS OF INDIA
( T I B E T )
Plan to develop the balance potential by the end of 14th Plan i.e. by 2026-27
For development of entire potential , over Rs. 5,00,000 crores would be required.
Survey & Investigation activities of all identified projects would need to be completed by the end of 12th Plan i.e. by 2016-17.
Completion of Survey & Investigation activities would involve an expenditure of over Rs. 5000 Crs.
Hydro electric projects involve submergence causing displacement of project area people .
There are some of the hydro projects where the progress has/ is being severely hampered from sustained opposition to project construction.
R& R is becoming a major issue in the implementation of storage-based hydro development.
Many times, it is one of the main reasons for the delay in the execution resulting in Time & Cost Over-runs
Hydro Projects often require forest land for their implementation and compensatory afforestation on the non forest lands.
The progress of some of the projects has been affected on account of delay/non-clearance from Environment and Forest aspects
Clearance from wildlife aspects is very cumbersome.
These aspects need to be looked into carefully to avoid undue problems during execution of the projects.
The features of the hydro electric projects, being site specific, depend on the geology, topography and hydrology at the site. The construction time of a hydro project is greatly influenced by the geology of the area and its accessibility.
It is, therefore, essential that state-of-the-art investigation and construction techniques are adopted to minimise geological risks as well as the overall gestation period of hydel projects.
Even if, extensive investigation using new techniques of investigations, are undertaken an element of uncertainty remains in the sub-surface geology and the geological surprises during actual construction can not be ruled out.
Efforts need to be made to evolve consensus for apportioning the costs , among various Agencies on account of extra security charges, additional cost on flood moderation, irrigation, drinking water, infrastructure (access roads) development etc.
Large Storage Projects developed in the higher reaches of river give benefits to the projects downstream and there should be apportionment of project cost among all the beneficiaries.
There is a lot of controversy in the development of Hydro Projects as Storage or R-O-R .
The type (Storage/ROR) of a hydro project depends upon the topography, geology and hydrology of the area and is site specific.
The storage sites in the country are limited and hence their optimum development would need to be ensured.
Most of the distress caused by storage schemes occur in the Hill states whereas the benefits are largely in the states in the plains which are perceived to be more prosperous. Therefore , Hill states prefer R-O-R schemes.
For the maximization of benefits in a basin, the judicious blend of both types of schemes (Storage/ROR) would need to be considered.
Creation of Power Corporations in Central/Joint
Three stage clearance procedure for expediting hydro development through CPSUs
Ranking Study by CEA to take up hydro development in appropriate sequence.
50,000 MW Hydro-Electric Initiative for preparation of PFRs of 162 projects and DPRs of low tariff H.E. schemes.
Policy liberalisation to attract private investment.
Policy on hydro power development.
National Water Policy.
Electricity Act,2003 and consequent Changes in Industry Structure .
National Rehabilitation &Resettlement (R&R) Policy .
National Electricity Policy.
Unit size of the hydro generating units have increased from largest unit size of 22 MW (at time of independence) to 250 MWnow.
Maximum station capacity at present is 1500 MW at Nathpa Jhakrihydro station in Himachal Pradesh.
Pykara Ultimate is the highest head plant (1026 m).
A number of hydro projects have been developed in cascades in order to reap the maximum possible benefits.
India has 20 underground power stations with total installed capacity of 9930 MW commissioned so far and 21 power stations with total capacity of 9551 MW are under Implementation.
9 Pumped Storage projects ( 3659.60 MW) are under operation and 3 Pumped Storage projects ( 2150 MW) are under construction in the country.
A large number of small, medium and large multipurpose/ power dams of all types viz concrete gravity, masonry, earth , rock-fill and CFRD have been built all over the country with indigenous expertise.
Roller Compacted Concrete Dam is under construction at Ghatghar pumped storage project.
Indian engineers and geologists have developed an expertise in the field of tunneling and have a credit of successful execution of large number of large tunnels for hydro power projects all over the country. Examples – 27 Km for Nathpa Jhakri and 31 Km for Parbati-II H.E. Projects.
The highest dam in India, 260 m high Tehri dam (rock fill) across Bhagirathi river in seismic environment of Himalayas, has been completed.
The performance of Hydro Stations has been constantly improving and their operating availability has been achieved above 90% in the years 2003-04 onwards. The forced outages have also reduced to about 2% .
Role of private participation in generation, transmission and distribution have become increasingly critical in view of the rapidly growing investment needs of the sector.
The Central Government and the State Governments have developed workable and successful models for public private partnership.
At present in India, 15 H.E. Schemes with 1203 MW are in operation and 7 schemes with an installation of 2291 MW are under construction in the private sector.
Further, 73 schemes (17268 MW) have been offered for development in Private sector by different states in the country.
During 11th &12th Plan, Capacity Addition through Private Sector would be about 23 % and 24% respectively.