Respiratory system
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Respiratory System. Chapter 14. Respiratory System . Filters , warms, and humidifies the air we breathe Helps make speech and sound possible and helps with the sense of smell. Structure. Organs include: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Alveoli

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Respiratory System

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Respiratory system

Respiratory System

Chapter 14


Respiratory system1

Respiratory System

  • Filters, warms, and humidifies the air we breathe

  • Helps make speech and sound possible and helps with the sense of smell


Structure

Structure

  • Organs include: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

  • Alveoli

    • thin-walled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place


Respiratory tracts

Respiratory Tracts

Upper Respiratory

Lower Respiratory

  • Nose

  • Pharynx

  • Larynx

  • “head cold”

  • Trachea

  • bronchial tree

  • The lungs

  • “chest cold”


Respiratory mucosa

Respiratory Mucosa

  • covered with mucus and lines the tubes of the respiratory tree

  • mucus serves as an air purifier

  • more than 125mL of mucus is produced daily

  • cilia only beat in one direction – up

    • “smokers cough”


Respiratory system

Nose


Respiratory system

Nose

Nasal Cavity

Cilia

Mucus

Nostrils


The pharynx

The Pharynx


The trachea and the larynx

The Trachea and The Larynx


The egpiglottis

The Egpiglottis


The bronchi

The Bronchi


The bronchioles and alveoli

The Bronchioles and Alveoli


Lungs and pleura

Lungs and Pleura


Respiration

Respiration

  • Exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)

  • Pulmonary ventilation

    • the process that moves air into and out of the lungs

  • External respiration

    • exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and the blood

  • Internal respiration

    • exchange of gases between the blood and cells of the body


Mechanics of breathing

Mechanics of Breathing

Inspiration

  • Moves air into the lungs

    • lungs expand and air rushes into them and down into the alveoli

  • The diaphragm contracts and flattens

    • reducing the air pressure in the lungs

    • drawing air into the lungs


Mechanics of breathing1

Mechanics of Breathing

Expiration

  • Air moves out of the lungs

  • The diaphragm relaxes and moves back up

    • increasing the air pressure in the lungs

    • pushing air out of the lungs


Volumes of air exchanged in pulmonary ventilation

Volumes of Air Exchanged in Pulmonary Ventilation

  • Tidal volume – normal volume of air into and out of the lungs(about 500mL)

  • Vital capacity – the largest amount of air that we breathe out in one expiration(about 4800 mL)


Volumes of air exchanged in pulmonary ventilation1

Volumes of Air Exchanged in Pulmonary Ventilation

  • Expiratory reserve volume

    • the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the tidal volume

  • Inspiratory reserve volume

    • the amount of air that can be forcibly inspired over and above normal inspiration

  • Residual volume

    • the air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration


Regulation of respiration

Regulation of Respiration

  • Respiratory control centers in the medulla and pons of the brainstem

  • Cerebral cortex can influence respiration by modifying the rate at which neurons fire in the inspiratory and expiratory centers of the medulla – voluntarily speed up or slow down the breathing rate

  • Chemoreceptors and Pulmonary stretch receptors may also influence respiration


Types of breathing

Types of Breathing

  • Eupnea – normal breathing

  • Hyper or Hypoventilation

  • Dyspnea – labored or difficult breathing

  • Apnea – breathing stops for a brief period

    • can result in respiratory arrest


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