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Respiratory System. Chapter 14. Respiratory System . Filters , warms, and humidifies the air we breathe Helps make speech and sound possible and helps with the sense of smell. Structure. Organs include: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Alveoli

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Respiratory system

Respiratory System

Chapter 14


Respiratory system1
Respiratory System

  • Filters, warms, and humidifies the air we breathe

  • Helps make speech and sound possible and helps with the sense of smell


Structure
Structure

  • Organs include: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

  • Alveoli

    • thin-walled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place


Respiratory tracts
Respiratory Tracts

Upper Respiratory

Lower Respiratory

  • Nose

  • Pharynx

  • Larynx

  • “head cold”

  • Trachea

  • bronchial tree

  • The lungs

  • “chest cold”


Respiratory mucosa
Respiratory Mucosa

  • covered with mucus and lines the tubes of the respiratory tree

  • mucus serves as an air purifier

  • more than 125mL of mucus is produced daily

  • cilia only beat in one direction – up

    • “smokers cough”



Nose

Nasal Cavity

Cilia

Mucus

Nostrils




The egpiglottis
The Egpiglottis




Lungs and pleura
Lungs and Pleura


Respiration
Respiration

  • Exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)

  • Pulmonary ventilation

    • the process that moves air into and out of the lungs

  • External respiration

    • exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and the blood

  • Internal respiration

    • exchange of gases between the blood and cells of the body


Mechanics of breathing
Mechanics of Breathing

Inspiration

  • Moves air into the lungs

    • lungs expand and air rushes into them and down into the alveoli

  • The diaphragm contracts and flattens

    • reducing the air pressure in the lungs

    • drawing air into the lungs


Mechanics of breathing1
Mechanics of Breathing

Expiration

  • Air moves out of the lungs

  • The diaphragm relaxes and moves back up

    • increasing the air pressure in the lungs

    • pushing air out of the lungs


Volumes of air exchanged in pulmonary ventilation
Volumes of Air Exchanged in Pulmonary Ventilation

  • Tidal volume – normal volume of air into and out of the lungs(about 500mL)

  • Vital capacity – the largest amount of air that we breathe out in one expiration(about 4800 mL)


Volumes of air exchanged in pulmonary ventilation1
Volumes of Air Exchanged in Pulmonary Ventilation

  • Expiratory reserve volume

    • the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the tidal volume

  • Inspiratory reserve volume

    • the amount of air that can be forcibly inspired over and above normal inspiration

  • Residual volume

    • the air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration


Regulation of respiration
Regulation of Respiration

  • Respiratory control centers in the medulla and pons of the brainstem

  • Cerebral cortex can influence respiration by modifying the rate at which neurons fire in the inspiratory and expiratory centers of the medulla – voluntarily speed up or slow down the breathing rate

  • Chemoreceptors and Pulmonary stretch receptors may also influence respiration


Types of breathing
Types of Breathing

  • Eupnea – normal breathing

  • Hyper or Hypoventilation

  • Dyspnea – labored or difficult breathing

  • Apnea – breathing stops for a brief period

    • can result in respiratory arrest


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