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GIS AS DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR LANDFILL SITING. Gaim James Lunkapis. GIS Support Unit Jabatan Perancang Bandar dan Wilayah Wisma Tun Fuad Stephens 88646 Kota Kinabalu SABAH. Overview. Background and Focus Existing Landfill Siting Guidelines Objective Methodology Study Area

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Gaim James Lunkapis

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Gaim james lunkapis



Gaim James Lunkapis

GIS Support Unit

Jabatan Perancang Bandar dan Wilayah

Wisma Tun Fuad Stephens

88646 Kota Kinabalu




  • Background and Focus

  • Existing Landfill Siting Guidelines

  • Objective

  • Methodology

  • Study Area

  • GIS Spatial Operation

  • Results

  • Conclusions

Gaim james lunkapis

LANDFILL Life Cycle - Focus



Site Selection

Landfill ???


Expansion ?

Landfill Siting

Landfill Maintenance

Fulfill Statutory Requirement



Landfill Construction

Focus background

Focus & Background

  • Landfill site selection

  • No established method or guidelines– landfill siting (Sabah)

  • Department of Environment, Malaysia – proposed to use CMT (Constraint Mapping Techniques)

Why use gis

Why use GIS

  • GIS is a tool to assist decision Making Process

  • Technically sound to assist decision Making process

  • The final decision – always - Management

  • Various techniques available within GIS family – this study will utilize CMT

Steps involve in cmt

Steps involve in CMT

1: Study Area,

2. Criteria,

3: Data,

4: Data into GIS Layer,

5: Spatial Operation,

6: Analyze, ranking,

7: Potential Search Area.

Study area sandakan 218 200 ha

Study Area – Sandakan 218,200 ha

  • Ministry of Local Government and Housing to LAs

    (KKTP.100 44/25 dated 24th April 2002)

  • State Economic Planning Unit to LAs and TRPD

    (UPEN.600-1/2 (97) dated 30th April 2002

  • Sandakan Municipal Council to TRPD

    (MPS:600-02/022/003/(29) dated 15th May 2002

  • Sandakan Local Plan (Sep 2001 – March 2003)

Constraint criteria

Constraint Criteria

1) Proximity to surface water and water sources,

2) Distance from main routes,

3) Distance from environmentally sensitive or protected areas,

4) Distance from residential areas,

5) Distance from rural settlements areas i.e. Village Settlements

6) Landform and Soil Type,

7) Land use/land cover,

8) Haul distance,

9) Slope of the land.

Data acquisition

Data Acquisition

Converting criteria into maps layers

Converting Criteria into Maps Layers

Spatial operation

Spatial Operation

Review of gis operation

Review of GIS Operation

To ArcView

(before result and analysis)

Result and analysis

Result and Analysis

Summary of results

Summary of Results



  • Learning Outcome

  • TRPD user of data – require data from other agencies

  • No formal agreement – data exchange – urgent need

  • GIS within TRPD – need further strengthening

  • Data

  • Accuracy – most data – acquired from secondary source

  • GIGO – 3 sources of error – human, collection, time

  • Presented suggestion to approach the above

  • Proponent Input

  • Sandakan Spatial Plan Working Group

  • Existing Landfill Site for Sandakan

  • Site visit – relocate to maintain

  • Recommendations

  • MPS to search for specific site within the findings

  • Other LAs adopt the CMT to aid decision making process

  • CMT for other application



The overall objective was to use GIS as decision support tools for sanitary landfill siting

- This research produce satisfactory result

- Helps Sandakan Municipal Council to make

better decision (presented 14/08/2002

The specific objective was to use Constraint Mapping Technique (CMT) as recommended by the Environment Department to reduce search area for possible landfill siting and to test this technique in one of the LA.

- CMT identifies 6 Potential Search Area (total Sandakan District - 218,200ha, PSA – 57,273ha, from GAM – 8,503ha)

The final product was an established method of landfill siting process which would be useful for Local Authorities and Planning Department.

- Established and tested methodology

on process, data handling, disseminations of information

or results.

Gaim james lunkapis

Demand for sanitary landfills will never end and will be there indefinitely because all other options still produce waste

(John Maxwell, 1997).

Gaim james lunkapis

Thank you

Moreinformationare available upon request


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