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REPUBLIC OF TURKEY. & İstanbul. MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK (1881-1938). ATATURK FOUNDED THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY IN 1923. He made many reforms and tried Turkey to integrate the Europe and world . He reconstructed all the educational , juridical and political base of Turkey .

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REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

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REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

&

İstanbul


MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK (1881-1938)

ATATURK FOUNDED THE

REPUBLIC OF TURKEY IN 1923


He mademanyreformsandtriedTurkeytointegratetheEuropeandworld.

He reconstructedalltheeducational,

juridicalandpoliticalbase of Turkey.


TURKEY IS A PARLIAMENTARYREPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY


Turkey is a secularstate with no official religion

Islam is the dominant religion of Turkey

There are about 120,000 Christians, including an estimated 80,000 Oriental Orthodox,35,000 Roman Catholics, 5,000 Greek Orthodoxand smaller numbers of Protestants, andabout 26,000 people who are Jewish


OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: TURKISH


CAPITAL CITY: ANKARATHE MOST CROWDED CITY: ISTANBUL

Theotherbigcitiesare :

İzmir

Bursa

Adana

Konya

Antalya


Turkey is bordered by eight countries:

BULGARIA- GREECE-GEORGIA-ARMENIA-AZERBAIJAN-IRAN-IRAQ-SYRIA


THE FOUR SEAS

MEDITERRANEAN SEA,

AEGEAN SEA,

BLACK SEA

THE SEA OF MARMARA


POPULATION

74,724,269


TURKEY ACCEPTED LATIN ALPHABET IN 1928

TURKEY ABOLISHED POLYGAMY IN 1926

TURKEY DOES NOT HAVE CAPITAL PUNISHMENT


CURRENCY

TURKISH LIRA


NOW TURKEY IS A CANDIDATE COUNTRY IN THE MEMBERSHIP OF EUROPEAN UNION


İSTANBUL


  • Istanbul is thelargestcity in Turkeyconstitutingthecountry'seconomic, cultural, andhistoricalheart. With a population of 13.5 million, thecity is amongthelargestcities in theworld.

  • Istanbul is a transcontinentalcity, straddlingtheBosphorus—one of theworld'sbusiestwaterways—in northwesternTurkey, betweentheSea of Marmara andtheBlackSea.


  • Itscommercialandhistoricalcenterlies in Europe, while a third of itspopulationlives in Asia.

  • Thepopulation of thecity has increasedtenfold since the 1950s, as migrantsfromacrossAnatoliahavecometothemetropolis .


  • Founded in around 660 BC as Byzantium, thecitynowknown as Istanbuldevelopedtobecomeone of themostsignificantcities in history. Fornearlysixteencenturiesfollowingitsreestablishment as Constantinople in 330 AD, it served as thecapital of fourempires: the Roman Empire, theByzantineEmpire, the Latin Empire, andtheOttomanEmpire.


  • Seven millionforeignvisitorsarrived in Istanbul in 2010, when it wasnamed a EuropeanCapital of Culture, makingthecitytheworld'stenth-most-popular touristdestination.


  • Istanbul has twointernationalairports, thelarger of which is Atatürk International. Atatürk, located 24 kilometerswest of thecitycenter, is theeighth-busiestairport in Europe.

  • Sabiha Gökçen InternationalAirport, 45 kilometerssoutheast of thecitycenter, wasopened in 2001.


Bosphorus

  • TheBosphorusdividesthecityintotheEuropeanandAsiansides, linkedbytwomagnificientbridges, spanningthecontinents. It is a charmingplace, knownforitsfishrestaurants, andthewalkuptotheruinedfortressoverlookingthevillage.


  • TheBosphorusBridge, alsocalledtheFirstBosphorusBridge is one of thetwobridges in Istanbul,  connectingEuropeandAsia. Itwasopened in 1973 tocelebratethe 50th anniversary of theRepublic.

  • The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, is thesecondbosphorusbridge, is a bridge in Istanbul, spanningtheBosphorusstrait. Itwascompleted in 1988.


ThePrincesIslands

Thepicturesquescenery of woodedhills, charmingbeachesandauthenticOttomanmansions, combinedwiththetranquilatmosphere, makefor a pleasantcontrasttothecityitself.

Büyük Ada, or “Big Island” is themost popular withvisitors. No carsareallowed but you can take a trip in a horseandcarriagetovisittheMonastery of St. George.


TAKSİM

  • Taksim Square is situated in theEuropeanpart of Istanbul, is a majorshopping, touristandleisuredistrictfamedforitsrestaurants, pubs, discos, shopsandhotels. It is consideredtheheart of modern Istanbul.


PERA

  • Beyoğlu is located on theEuropeanside, separatedfromtheoldcitybythe Golden Horn. Itwasknown as PeraduringtheMiddleAges, andthis name remained in commonuseuntiltheearly 20th centuryandtheestablishment of theTurkishRepublic.


Maiden'sTower

  • Maiden'sTower is a towerlying on a small islet located at 200 m offthecoast of Üsküdar. Theinterior of thetower has beentransformedinto a popular caféandrestaurant. Privateboatsmaketripstothetowerseveraltimes a day. Whenyouvisitthistower, youwillalsolearnthelegendsabouttheconstruction of thetoweranditslocation.


TopkapiPalace

  • TopkapiPalace is thesymbolandthecenter of theOttomanEmpire. OverlookingBosphorusandthe Marmara sea, standsthisamazingbuildingthatwasthegreatpalace of theOttomanSultans. Thepalace is a collection of buildingsarrangedaround a series of courtyardsand has incrediblecollections of jewels, China, pieces of OttomanandIslamicartwork.


Saint Sophie

  • Saint Sophie, builtbyConstantintheGreat, alsoknown as thechurch of theDivineWisdomwasdesignedtoshowthestrengthandwealth of the Roman emperors. Once it wasthegreatestChristianchurch in theworld.


Sultanahmet Mosque

  • Sultanahmet Mosque, is known as theBlueMosque, because of itsmagnificientinteriordecorations of blueIzniktiles. Outside of themosquestandstheturbeorthetomb of Sultan Ahmet. The Sultan wasburiedherealongwith his wifeandthreesons.


BasilicaCistern

  • BasilicaCistern, built in thefourthcentury, is one of the underground cisternsthatriddlethefoundations of thecity. It has beenextensivelyexcavatedandrenovatedand is worthvisitingandexploringwhilelisteningtothetunes of classicalmusic.


SuleymaniyeMosque

  • SuleymaniyeMosquebuiltby Mimar Sinan, thegreatarchitect, andcompleted in just seven years is consideredto be themostbeautiful of allImperialmosques in Istanbul. Itdominatestheskyline of the Golden Horn. Adjoiningthemosquethereareschools of theology, schools of Medicine, and a caravanserai.


  • DolmabahcePalacewasbuilt as a secondresidencetothe Sultan Abdulmecidmid 19th century. Thepalacecommands a nice viewright on theBosphorusanditsgardensareverypretty, especially in springand

    summer.

  • Thefounder of Turkey,

    Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

    died in thispalace on

    November 10, 1938.


DolmabahcePalace


Grand Bazaar

  • Grand Bazaar, theworld'sbiggestcoveredhistoricBazaar since 1461. It is one of themostfamousspots of Istanbul, alwaysfilledwithcrowdswho not onlycometoshop but towindow-shopcarpets, jewellery, leathers,handcrafts, homedecorationitemsandmanymore.


Galata Tower

  • Galata Tower is located in the Galata area of Beyoglu. Galata tower is one of thebestvistapoints in Istanbulwithsweepingviews of the Golden Horn


Beylerbeyi Palace

  • Beylerbeyi Palace is located on theAsianside of theBosphorusslightlytothenorth of DolmabahcePalace, rightunderthefirstbridgewhichconnectsAsiaandEurope. Muchsmaller in size, thepalace is a nice example of Ottomanarchitecture.


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