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Objective:. To review the ECC Persian War reading by highlighting 4 Battles of the War and identifying the significance of each. For each battle complete the following:. 1. Who was involved? (people, CS ) 2. When and Where was the battle? 3. What happened?

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Objective

Objective:

To review the ECC Persian War reading by highlighting 4 Battles of the War and identifying the significance of each.


For each battle complete the following

For each battle complete the following:

  • 1. Who was involved? (people, CS )

  • 2. When and Where was the battle?

  • 3. What happened?

  • 4. How did the battle affect Greece? Why was it significant?


Ancient engraving of athenian agora

Ancient Engraving of Athenian Agora

The Persian Wars were immensely important in the history of ancient Greece. Working together to defeat a common foe reminded the Greek city-states that they shared a common language, culture and religion. After the wars ended, Spartans, Athenians and residents of other Greek city-states referred to themselves collectively as “Greeks” more then they had in the past. Additionally, victory over the might Persian Empire filled the Greeks with a new level of confidence. At times, this confidence expressed itself as sheer arrogance. For example, in Herodotus' history to the Persian Wars, he repeatedly referred to the Persians as “barbarians.”


Objective

  • However, this newfound confidence led to the development of stunning cultural achievements, especially in the city state of Athens. The Athenians were determined to rebuild their city and make it one of the most spectacular in the ancient word. During the 40 years following the Persian Wars, the achievements of Athenians in theater, philosophy, sculpture, architecture and government were so numerous that many have referred to the period as the “Golden Age” of Athens.


Expansion of the persian empire

Expansion of the Persian Empire

  • Persians=King Darius, Satrapies=provinces

  • It was 522-486 BCE From Asian Minor to India and Caspian Sea to Arabia/Egypt

  • Persians collected taxes but conquered could keep own language, religion and laws. Darious built new capital Persepolis and it became know for beauty and splendor.

  • In 513 BCE Darious launched his first invasion on Greece. Greece in contrast to Persia was divided and city-states fought each other, they were limited in resources and poor.


Ionian revolt

Ionian Revolt

  • Ionians-Greek City-state in Asia minor, Sparta refused to help, Athens and Eretria helped

  • 546 BCE, Asia Minor, city of Miletus burned ended in 493 BCE

  • Ionians were a prosperous city state that no longer wanted to pay tribute to Persia so in 499 BCE they revolted. Sparta would not help but Athens and Eretria did, however the Persians put down the rebellion and burnt the city Miletus to the ground and sold the people into slavery.

  • This marked the beginning of the Persian Wars. It also set up a rivalry between Athens and Darius/Persia. Darius had a slave remind him every day “Master, remember the Athenians.” To make sure he would punish them for their assistance in the rebellion.


Battle of marathon

Battle of Marathon

  • Darius, Pheidippides=famous Athenian runner who was sent to Sparta to ask for help. He was the first Marathon runner and died in service.,Miltiades=Athenian General who led Greeks to victory

  • In 490 BCE Darius sent forces to Aegean Sea and Marathon (26 miles north of Athens)

  • Athenians only had an army of 9,000 agains tPersians troops of 20,000 (immortals) and 200 ships. Pheidippides ran to Sparta for more troops meanwhile Miltiades led his army to Marathon where they met the Persians. On the 3rd day the Persian cavalry the Persian commander decided to sail to Athens to attack before the Spartans arrived. When Athenians saw that Persian cavalry was gone Miltiades attacked and the Persians lost 6,400 men. Athens only 162. It was a victory

  • Miltiades ability to lead Greece to victory with such a small force give Greeks new confidence against the Persians, and began to turn the tides of war!


Battle of thermopylae

Battle of Thermopylae

  • Xerxes, Darius’s heir, who wanted to conquer Athens. His army was made up of Persians, Phoenicians, Egyptians and Ionian-Greeks! Leonidas=Spartan leader and hero.

  • 480 BCE Xerxes led his army across Hellespont through N.Greece. The city-state quickly surrendered. Sparta and Athens decided to work together to stop the invasion.

  • Leonidas set up defenses at Thermopylae, while Athen’s navy prevented the Persians from getting supplies. At the narrrow pass of Thermopylae about 100 miles northwest of Athens Sparta defenses fought the Persians. The Persians were losing until a Greek traitor showed a sevret path to the Persians who struck the Spartans from behind. Leonidas asked for back up but it was not sent. Xerxes severed his head and placed it on a pole as an example.

  • The Spartans and Athenians worked together


Battle of salamis

Battle of Salamis

  • Xerxes, Themistocles=Athenian general who asked all to leave Athens and unite near Salamis.

  • 479BCE, Saronic gulf, bay of Eleusis, Island of Salamis

  • Themistocles convinced Greek navy to lure Persia into battle within the narrow channels between gulf and bay. He argued the Persian ships would be too large to maneuver there. He wanted to keep Greek fleet on island and not have it go back to defend Peloponnesus. Since Xerxes suffered great losses at Thermopylae he did not want to attack by sea however his advisor wanted to fight the Greeks at Salamis. Only one adviser, Queen Artemisia thought they should wait. Xerxes rejected her advice. Themistocles sent Xerxes a falst message saying he had changed sided and wanted a victory for Persia. Xerxes’s growing impatience made him believe this and the trap was set. Once the Persian troops entered the channel the Greek warships attached breaking the oars of the Persian ships and ramming their hulls. Persians were left unable to move and lost 200 ships while Greeks only lost 40. Xerxes withdrew to Hellespont. In 479 Persians defeated finally at the Battle of Platea and forced to leave Asia minor! Yeah Greece.


Objective

Hmmm…

  • What was the final battle of the Persian Wars? Platea

  • How did they unify Greece? Got them to join against common enemy and realize they were all Greek, common language, religion, culture.

  • Which battle was the turning point? Why? Marathon? Salamis? Defend your choice…


Effects

Effects:

  • The Persian Wars were immensely important in the history of ancient Greece. Working together to defeat a common foe reminded the Greek city-state that they shared a common language, culture and religion. After the wars ended, Spartans, Athenians, and resident of other Greek CS referred to themselves collectively as “Greeks”. Additionally, victory over the mighty Persian Empire filled the Greeks with a new level of confidence. At times this confidence turned into arrogance as proof in Herodotus’s history of the Persian Wars, he referred to the Persians as Barbarians, when clearly they were an advanced civilization based on findings of art, war and technology. However, this confidence also led to the development of cultural achievements, especially in Athens. The Athenians were determined to rebuild their city and make it one of the most spectacular in the ancient world. During the 40 years following the Persian Wars, the achievements of Athenians, in theater, philosophy, sculpture, architecture and government were so numerous that many referred to that period as the Golden Age of Athens.


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