ecstasy and related drugs erds an update
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Ecstasy and related drugs (ERDs): An update

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 45

Ecstasy and related drugs ERDs: An update - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 143 Views
  • Uploaded on

Ecstasy and related drugs (ERDs): An update. Paul Dillon Drug and Alcohol Research and Training Australia. Ecstasy and related drugs (ERDs). A wide variety of substances used when frequenting entertainment venues including dance parties, nightclubs, bars, etc

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Ecstasy and related drugs ERDs: An update' - thane


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
ecstasy and related drugs erds an update

Ecstasy and related drugs (ERDs): An update

Paul Dillon

Drug and Alcohol Research

and Training Australia

ecstasy and related drugs erds
Ecstasy and related drugs (ERDs)

A wide variety of substances

  • used when frequenting entertainment venues including dance parties, nightclubs, bars, etc
  • little research due to low prevalence of use and low level of harm associated with use

ERDs to be discussed in this presentation will be:

  • ecstasy and methamphetamine
  • others may alcohol, cocaine, LSD, ketamine, GHB, amyl nitrate, anti-depressants and a range of other illicits and pharmaceuticals
ecstasy and related drugs erds1
Ecstasy and related drugs (ERDs)

ERDs users tended to use recreationally and did not:

  • experience severe problems
  • attend treatment services
  • come into contact with law enforcement

For a long time, much of the information was anecdotal

  • reports from users, dealers and those who work with the ERDs using community
  • increasing research data now being collected
lifetime drug use 14 years and over 2007 national drug household survey
Lifetime Drug Use – 14 years and over2007 National Drug Household Survey

%

This graph reports the proportion of the population aged 14 years or older in Australia who reported using the drug (including alcohol and tobacco) at least once in their lifetime

lifetime non use 14 years and over 2007 national drug household survey
Lifetime – non-use – 14 years and over2007 National Drug Household Survey

%

This graph reports the proportion of the population aged 14 years or older in Australia who reported never using the drug (including alcohol and tobacco)

recent drug use 14 years and over 2007 national drug household survey
Recent Drug Use – 14 years and over2007 National Drug Household Survey

%

This graph reports the proportion of the population aged 14 years or older in Australia who reported recently using the drug (including alcohol and tobacco). Recent use is defined as using in the last 12 months

recent non use 14 years and over 2007 national drug household survey
Recent non-use – 14 years and over2007 National Drug Household Survey

%

This graph reports the proportion of the population aged 14 years or older in Australia who reported not recently using the drug (including alcohol and tobacco). Recent use is defined as using in the last 12 months

slide10
Alcohol consumption, litres of pure alcohol per capita, population 15 years and over 1963 -2003 OECD Health Data 2004; ABS 2004
are young people simply doing what we did
Are young people simply ‘doing what we did’?

Although parents believe that alcohol use is a ‘rite of passage’ and that their teenagers are simply ‘doing what they did’ – there is evidence to suggest that we are seeing very different patterns of drinking. Of those that do drink ….

  • they begin drinking earlier
  • they drink more, more often
  • they now drink spirits
    • vodka being the preferred for young women and rum or bourbon for young males
slide12
Hospitalisation due to drug use and acute alcohol intoxication – 2005-2006AIHW National Hospital Morbidity Database

Rate – per 100,000 population

Age group (years)

slide13
Hospitalisation due to drug use and acute alcohol intoxication – 2005-2006ABS Australian Social Trends (2008)
  • There were almost 3,000 hospital separations among young peple aged 15-24 years due to acute intoxication with alcohol in 2005-06
    • for young men the rate for alcohol intoxication increased from 66 to 107 per 100,000 from 1998-99 to 2005-06
    • for young women, the rate doubled over this time from 46 to 99 separations per 100,000

In 2005-06, male and female teenagers aged 15-19 years had the highest hospital separation rates for acute intoxication among all age groups

ecstasy
Ecstasy

Not used by 91% of the Australian population

  • 94% of 14-19 year olds have not used (95% have not in past year)
  • 76% of 20-29 year olds have not used (89% have not in past year)

Short-term effects

  • euphoria - feeling of well-being
  • increased closeness with others
  • jaw clenching and teeth grinding

Long-term effects

  • has been linked to some deaths. Some users experience depression and some memory and cognitive impairment
ecstasy1
Ecstasy

The effect of ecstasy can be divided into three stages, although not everyone will have the same experience:

  • ‘coming up’ - lasts for between 5-20 minutes
  • the ‘plateau’ - approximately 4 hours
  • ‘coming down’ - can last for days

Effects will depend on how the drug is administered and if other drugs are used

slide18
Ecstasy: How have things changed?2004 National Drug Household Survey Results (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2005)

%

slide28

Ecstasy: What messages are we sending?

“When it happens, thermal melt-down isn’t pretty. Your body literally cooks from the inside. Muscles turn to liquid. Organs such as the kidney and the liver collapse. It’s just one of the possible consequences of taking ecstasy.”

But is it the most likely consequence?

  • how rare is this?
  • how credible is this to the user group?
  • this may be the most shocking and tragic consequence – but if it doesn’t have credibility is it going to be accepted by users?
slide29

Ecstasy and mental health

“Marijuana affects different people in different ways. And no one can predict what it will do to you. Psychological problems -sometimes small, sometimes major and long term - are just one possibility.”

Could we provide similar for ecstasy users?

  • even though the research isn’t conclusive - many ecstasy users report psychological problems – depression, anxiety, paranoia, etc
  • young people are more concerned about their mental health than ever before
  • would this be a more useful message?
methamphetamine
Methamphetamine

Not used by 94% of the Australian population

  • 14-19 year olds - 99% have not used in the past 12 months
  • 20-29 year olds - 91% have not used in the past 12 months

Short-term effects may include:

  • euphoria, feeling of well-being
  • nausea and anxiety - sweating
  • increased blood pressure and pulse rate
  • jaw clenching and teeth grinding
methamphetamine1
Methamphetamine

Long-term effects (physical)

  • poor appetite - sleep problems
  • seizures - fatigue and a loss of energy
  • liver and kidney failure - respiratory depression
  • high blood pressure and rapid and irregular heartbeat

(psychological)

  • anxiety and paranoia - extreme mood swings
  • panic attacks - compulsive repetition of actions
  • injury associated with dangerous acts arising from disinhibited behaviour
methamphetamine2
Methamphetamine

Crystal methamphetamine is imported into Australia from China, Hong Kong, Japan, the Philippines, South Korea and Taiwan into Australia

slide39

Methamphetamine – Speed powder

Most methamphetamine in Australia comes in powder form

Speed powder varies in texture from very fine to more coarse and crystalline, and can also vary in colour from white to yellow, pink or brownish

  • These variations are mainly due to the different purifying processes used by backyard chemists
methamphetamine base
Methamphetamine - Base

Base - sticky, gluggy, waxy or oily form of damp powder – the first step in the manufacturing process to produce methamphetamine and is an oil

  • oil is not popular, as it is difficult to inject or snort, so manufacturers attempt to purify the product into a crystal
  • the result is often messy and impure (a tell-tale sign is a yellowish or brownish tinge) - it doesn’t crystallize
slide41

Crystalline methamphetamine

The most publicised form of methamphetamine and also the most expensive (can cost up to $400 per gram)

As a result it is usually sold in smaller amounts – ‘points’ (0.1 of a gram)

The purest form of the drug – it can be up to 80-90% pure. Of course this results in more problems for the users including psychosis and dependence

drink spiking
Drink spiking

The media says:

  • drink spiking is on the increase
  • the drugs used to spike drinks are often tasteless and odourless – making them almost impossible to detect
  • rohypnol, ketamine and GHB are among those that are used

We have no hard data on the prevalence of drink spiking … most information is based on anecdotes – media has ignored this and perpetuated myths

drink spiking1
Drink spiking

Drink spiking does happen - everyone should be on their guard

Does it only happen at nightclubs and carried out by strangers?

  • more likely to happen in own home, or the home of someone you know and be carried out by someone you have met or know well

Alcohol is the drug most likely to be used – and although many say that the drugs used are tasteless and odourless – this is unlikely

drink spiking2
Drink spiking

Drink spiking is a crime – putting something into someone’s drink without their knowledge, even extra alcohol, is illegal

  • if your drink has a strange taste, feels gritty or you’re just not sure – stop drinking!
  • tell your friends about your concern
  • make plans and stick to them
  • remember that a drink spiker is less likely to target a sober person – you are at greater risk if you have been drinking alcohol!
drink spiking3
Drink spiking

Drink spiking undoubtedly occurs – evidence would indicate that alcohol is the usual drug used

If other drugs are used – it is more likely to occur in a home than in a club (where the perpetrator has little control)

We must give strong messages to potential perpetrators and also tips to young people on how to avoid being targeted

Health professionals should not perpetuate myths about drink spiking – e.g., Progesterox

ad