Contact Maneuvers

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# Contact Maneuvers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Contact Maneuvers. Overview. Introduction Takeoffs Approaches Traffic Patterns Emergency Procedures. Takeoffs. Hovering Flight Normal Maximum Performance Marginal Power. Hovering Flight. Per Task 1017, Army TC 1-211/23 FTS ATL Vertical ascent to hover altitude of 4 feet, +/-1 foot

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### Contact Maneuvers

Overview
• Introduction
• Takeoffs
• Approaches
• Traffic Patterns
• Emergency Procedures
Takeoffs
• Hovering Flight
• Normal
• Maximum Performance
• Marginal Power
Hovering Flight
• Per Task 1017, Army TC 1-211/23 FTS ATL
• Vertical ascent to hover altitude of 4 feet, +/-1 foot
• Maintain heading +/- 10 degrees
• Drift not to exceed 1 foot on hover takeoff, 2 feet while stationary, during turns, or moving forward, sideward, or rearward, no drift lateral or rearward on landing from hover
• Turns flown with constant rate of turn not to exceed 90 degrees in 4 seconds
Normal Takeoff
• Aircraft exposure time in avoid area of height velocity diagram minimized
• Takeoff may be started from the ground or hover
• Maintain takeoff heading with pedals +/- 10 degrees (wing low method if necessary) below 50 ft.
• Apply takeoff power 3 psi above hover power, maintain +/- 1 psi
• Apply forward cyclic to attain 70 KIAS by 100’ AGL or as necessary to clear obstacles by 10’, maintain 70 KIAS +/- 10 in climb
• Place aircraft in trim after climb established and clear barriers
Marginal Power Takeoff
• Takeoff accomplished from a hover/ground with hover power simulated max power available
• Brief 50’ simulated obstacle and abort point
• Maintain takeoff power of hover torque +/- 1 psi
• Maintain takeoff heading +/- 10 degrees until clear barriers
• Apply forward cyclic to accelerate forward from hover
• Passing through ETL, enter and maintain climb to clear obstacles, maintain a/s at or above ETL (can accelerate to max R/C airspeed); do not allow a/s to drop below trans lift as critical settling to ground may occur
• Upon passing 50’agl (simulated obstacle), accelerate w/o descending through 50 kts, the maneuver is terminated and increase power and airspeed to establish standard 70 KIAS climb, a/c in trim
Maximum Performance Takeoff
• Takeoff from ground or hover with OGE power available
• Brief simulated 100’ obstacle and abort point
• Maintain takeoff power (6 psi above hover for stagefield, as required for remote site) +/- 1 psi
• Maintain takeoff heading +/- 10 degrees until clear obstacles
• Establish slightly nose low attitude (40 K, skids level) in climb to safely clear obstacle by 10’, then accelerate to 70 KIAS without descending, a/c in trim
• Upon reaching 70 KIAS, adjust power and attitude for normal climb
• Maintain power setting until termination of maneuver; can use other pilot to call out power settings
Approaches
• Normal Approach
• Steep Approach
• Shallow Approach
• Slide Landing
• Approach to Touchdown
Normal Approach
• Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/70 KIAS , 30 degree apparent angle
• At desired angle, lower collective to establish a descent, start gradual reduction of airspeed/groundspeed
• Power required, aircraft attitude, approach speed will vary (different aircraft weights, density altitude, winds)
• Rate of closure (brisk walk) controlled primarily by cyclic, adjust so ETL lost as aircraft enters ground effect (about 50 ft)
• Coordinate collective and cyclic to maintain angle/decrease speed, wing low method to maintain groundtrack/alignment below 50 ft
• Allow for smooth transition to zero groundspeed at 3-5 ft hover over landing spot (aim for nose centered over spot at termination)
Normal Approach
• Note
• Exercise care to avoid tail low attitudes near ground..at 12 deg nose up attitude the tail skid and rear skids could contact the ground simultaneously
Steep Approach
• Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/30 K groundspeed, 45 degree apparent angle
• Initiate approach with 30 k groundspeed, +/- 5 k
• At desired angle, lower collective to start approach, maintain apparent angle at which approach is started throughout approach
• Use collective to control angle and rate of descent, cyclic to control rate of closure
• Coordinate controls to effect a smooth transition to zero groundspeed over intended spot (nose centered over landing spot)
• 800 fpm maximum rate of descent below 30 KIAS
• Reducing forward speed to 0, with rates of descent in excess of 800 fpm may result in setting with power
• Terminate within 10ft of intended hover/touchdown spot
Shallow Approach
• Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/70 KIAS , 10 degree apparent angle
• At desired angle, lower collective to establish a descent, start gradual reduction of airspeed/groundspeed
• Power required, aircraft attitude, approach speed will vary (different aircraft weights, density altitude, winds)
• Rate of closure (brisk walk) controlled primarily by cyclic, adjust so ETL lost as aircraft enters ground effect (about 50 ft)
• Coordinate collective and cyclic to maintain angle/decrease speed, wing low method to maintain groundtrack/alignment below 50 ft
• Allow for smooth transition to zero groundspeed at 3-5 ft hover over landing spot (aim for mast centered over spot at termination)
Slide Landing
• Normally used in conjunction with shallow approach
• Plan the approach to near end of landing area, touchdown with airspeed at or slightly above translational lift
• Touchdown must occur in the first two-thirds of landing area
• At hover altitude, establish landing attitude (very slightly nose high, hover attitude), smoothly fly aircraft to the ground
• Collective as necessary to cushion the landing, maintain directional control with the tail rotor pedals and cyclic as required
• Heading aligned with landing direction +/- 5 deg
• Collective slowly reduced to allow skid friction to stop aircraft; an abrupt reduction of collective may cause helicopter to nose over and result in the rotor contacting the fuselage
Approach to Touchdown
• Made from any desired angle, used when there is a shortage of power, possibility of restriction to visibility (blowing snow/sand/grass), or anytime hovering is not desired.
• Touchdown area must be clear of obstructions and nearly level
• Touchdown at zero, or near zero groundspeed, landing attitude (very slightly nose high, hover attitude)
• Smoothly fly aircraft to ground
Traffic Pattern Flight
• Enter traffic pattern on 45 deg angle to center of downwind leg, or as directed by ATC
• Maintain straight ground track using crab method, aircraft in trim
• Maintain rate of climb/descent +/- 100 fpm, airspeed +/- 10 KIAS (90KIAS downwind/70KIAS crosswind/base), altitudes +/- 100 feet (500’ agl downwind, 300’ agl base or stagefield altitudes published in In-Flight Guide), roll out on desired hdg +/- 10 deg
• Pilot on controls primarily focused outside, all other crewmembers assist as requested - clear all turns prior to beginning turn
• Utilize proper power management to climb, level off, and descend as appropriate
Emergency Procedures
• Autorotation with Turn
• Practice autorotation terminated with power, but should be planned as though an actual to a touchdown
• To enter, smoothly lower collective to minimum, reduce throttle to flight idle, apply right pedal to maintain trim (coordinated flight)
• Verbalize the underlined steps, check for normal engine instrument readings and rotor in the green during descent
• Adjust aircraft attitude to attain desired glide speed; wings level, min of 70 KIAS, rotor in green, normal (< 3000fpm) rate of descent prior to flare
• Initiate flare at 75-100 feet with smooth aft cyclic application (reduce rate of descent and groundspeed, allow rotor to build), once established slowly rotate throttle to full-open position
• No lower than 25’, rotate aircraft to landing (hover attitude, very slightly nose high) attitude, initial power pull at 15-20’
• Terminate with power no lower than 4’ above ground, 0-15 k gs, no lateral drift
• Standards
• Entry altitude +/- 100 feet (Min straight 500’agl; turning 800’agl)
• Entry airspeed 90KIAS +/- 10 KIAS
• Verbalize underlined steps, select correct entry point
• Rotor within limits (in green) throughout entire manuever
• 70-100 KIAS at flare entry, flare initiated at 75-100 feet
• Heading alignment within +/- 10 deg during power application
• Smooth, precise controlled aircraft movement
• Terminate no lower than 4’ with less than 15 k groundspeed
• Landing attitude at termination with no lateral drift
Turning Autorotation
• Practice autorotation with 180 deg turn terminated with power, but should be planned as an actual to a touchdown
• To enter, smoothly lower collective to minimum, reduce throttle to flight idle, apply right pedal to maintain trim, start turn to lane
• Verbalize the underlined steps, check for normal engine instrument readings and rotor in the green during descent
• Adjust aircraft attitude to attain desired glide speed (if a/s decreases during turn do not dive excessively), continue turn toward landing area
• Must have wings level, min of 70 KIAS, rotor in green, normal (< 3000fpm) rate of descent, aligned with lane no lower than 150’AGL prior to flare (minor heading corrections on final allowed)
• Initiate flare at 75-100 feet with smooth aft cyclic application (reduce rate of descent and groundspeed, allow rotor to build), once established slowly rotate throttle to full-open position
• No lower than 25’, rotate aircraft to landing (hover attitude, very slightly nose high) attitude, initial power pull at 15-20’
• Terminate with power no lower than 4’ above ground, 0-15 k gs, no lateral drift
Turning Autorotation
• Standards
• Entry altitude +/- 100 feet (Min straight 500’agl; turning 800’agl)
• Entry airspeed 90KIAS +/- 10 KIAS
• Verbalize underlined steps, select correct entry point
• Rotor within limits (in green) throughout entire manuever
• Maintain airspeed during descent 80 KIAS +/- 20 during turn
• 70-100 KIAS at flare entry, flare initiated at 75-100 feet
• Heading alignment within +/- 10 deg during power application
• Smooth, precise controlled aircraft movement
• Terminate no lower than 4’ with less than 15 k groundspeed
• Landing attitude at termination with no lateral drift
Autorotations
• Warnings
• Ensure collective at minimum setting to maintain rotor in limits and throttle application smooth when advancing throttle to full open; reduces stress applied to sprag clutch
• Avoid low airspeed/high vertical descent during final portion; engine power/rotor inertia may not be sufficient to safely recover the aircraft
• Notes
• If at any time the success of the autorotation is in doubt initiate a immediate power recovery and/or go-around
• Key elements for a successful autorotation are suitable glide speed and aircraft trim
• Slight amount of back pressure on cyclic during turn will aid in getting through the turn and avoid diving
Summary
• Introduction
• Takeoffs
• Approaches
• Traffic Patterns
• Emergency Procedures