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Contact Maneuvers. Overview. Introduction Takeoffs Approaches Traffic Patterns Emergency Procedures. Takeoffs. Hovering Flight Normal Maximum Performance Marginal Power. Hovering Flight. Per Task 1017, Army TC 1-211/23 FTS ATL Vertical ascent to hover altitude of 4 feet, +/-1 foot

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overview
Overview
  • Introduction
  • Takeoffs
  • Approaches
  • Traffic Patterns
  • Emergency Procedures
takeoffs
Takeoffs
  • Hovering Flight
  • Normal
  • Maximum Performance
  • Marginal Power
hovering flight
Hovering Flight
  • Per Task 1017, Army TC 1-211/23 FTS ATL
    • Vertical ascent to hover altitude of 4 feet, +/-1 foot
    • Maintain heading +/- 10 degrees
    • Drift not to exceed 1 foot on hover takeoff, 2 feet while stationary, during turns, or moving forward, sideward, or rearward, no drift lateral or rearward on landing from hover
    • Turns flown with constant rate of turn not to exceed 90 degrees in 4 seconds
normal takeoff
Normal Takeoff
  • Aircraft exposure time in avoid area of height velocity diagram minimized
  • Takeoff may be started from the ground or hover
    • Maintain takeoff heading with pedals +/- 10 degrees (wing low method if necessary) below 50 ft.
    • Apply takeoff power 3 psi above hover power, maintain +/- 1 psi
    • Apply forward cyclic to attain 70 KIAS by 100’ AGL or as necessary to clear obstacles by 10’, maintain 70 KIAS +/- 10 in climb
    • Place aircraft in trim after climb established and clear barriers
marginal power takeoff
Marginal Power Takeoff
  • Takeoff accomplished from a hover/ground with hover power simulated max power available
    • Brief 50’ simulated obstacle and abort point
    • Maintain takeoff power of hover torque +/- 1 psi
    • Maintain takeoff heading +/- 10 degrees until clear barriers
    • Apply forward cyclic to accelerate forward from hover
    • Passing through ETL, enter and maintain climb to clear obstacles, maintain a/s at or above ETL (can accelerate to max R/C airspeed); do not allow a/s to drop below trans lift as critical settling to ground may occur
    • Upon passing 50’agl (simulated obstacle), accelerate w/o descending through 50 kts, the maneuver is terminated and increase power and airspeed to establish standard 70 KIAS climb, a/c in trim
maximum performance takeoff
Maximum Performance Takeoff
  • Takeoff from ground or hover with OGE power available
    • Brief simulated 100’ obstacle and abort point
    • Maintain takeoff power (6 psi above hover for stagefield, as required for remote site) +/- 1 psi
    • Maintain takeoff heading +/- 10 degrees until clear obstacles
    • Establish slightly nose low attitude (40 K, skids level) in climb to safely clear obstacle by 10’, then accelerate to 70 KIAS without descending, a/c in trim
    • Upon reaching 70 KIAS, adjust power and attitude for normal climb
    • Maintain power setting until termination of maneuver; can use other pilot to call out power settings
approaches
Approaches
  • Normal Approach
  • Steep Approach
  • Shallow Approach
  • Slide Landing
  • Approach to Touchdown
normal approach
Normal Approach
  • Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/70 KIAS , 30 degree apparent angle
    • At desired angle, lower collective to establish a descent, start gradual reduction of airspeed/groundspeed
    • Power required, aircraft attitude, approach speed will vary (different aircraft weights, density altitude, winds)
    • Rate of closure (brisk walk) controlled primarily by cyclic, adjust so ETL lost as aircraft enters ground effect (about 50 ft)
    • Coordinate collective and cyclic to maintain angle/decrease speed, wing low method to maintain groundtrack/alignment below 50 ft
    • Allow for smooth transition to zero groundspeed at 3-5 ft hover over landing spot (aim for nose centered over spot at termination)
normal approach10
Normal Approach
  • Note
    • Exercise care to avoid tail low attitudes near ground..at 12 deg nose up attitude the tail skid and rear skids could contact the ground simultaneously
steep approach
Steep Approach
  • Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/30 K groundspeed, 45 degree apparent angle
    • Initiate approach with 30 k groundspeed, +/- 5 k
    • At desired angle, lower collective to start approach, maintain apparent angle at which approach is started throughout approach
    • Use collective to control angle and rate of descent, cyclic to control rate of closure
    • Coordinate controls to effect a smooth transition to zero groundspeed over intended spot (nose centered over landing spot)
    • 800 fpm maximum rate of descent below 30 KIAS
    • Reducing forward speed to 0, with rates of descent in excess of 800 fpm may result in setting with power
    • Terminate within 10ft of intended hover/touchdown spot
shallow approach
Shallow Approach
  • Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/70 KIAS , 10 degree apparent angle
    • At desired angle, lower collective to establish a descent, start gradual reduction of airspeed/groundspeed
    • Power required, aircraft attitude, approach speed will vary (different aircraft weights, density altitude, winds)
    • Rate of closure (brisk walk) controlled primarily by cyclic, adjust so ETL lost as aircraft enters ground effect (about 50 ft)
    • Coordinate collective and cyclic to maintain angle/decrease speed, wing low method to maintain groundtrack/alignment below 50 ft
    • Allow for smooth transition to zero groundspeed at 3-5 ft hover over landing spot (aim for mast centered over spot at termination)
slide landing
Slide Landing
  • Normally used in conjunction with shallow approach
    • Plan the approach to near end of landing area, touchdown with airspeed at or slightly above translational lift
    • Touchdown must occur in the first two-thirds of landing area
    • At hover altitude, establish landing attitude (very slightly nose high, hover attitude), smoothly fly aircraft to the ground
    • Collective as necessary to cushion the landing, maintain directional control with the tail rotor pedals and cyclic as required
    • Heading aligned with landing direction +/- 5 deg
    • Collective slowly reduced to allow skid friction to stop aircraft; an abrupt reduction of collective may cause helicopter to nose over and result in the rotor contacting the fuselage
approach to touchdown
Approach to Touchdown
  • Made from any desired angle, used when there is a shortage of power, possibility of restriction to visibility (blowing snow/sand/grass), or anytime hovering is not desired.
    • Touchdown area must be clear of obstructions and nearly level
    • Touchdown at zero, or near zero groundspeed, landing attitude (very slightly nose high, hover attitude)
    • Smoothly fly aircraft to ground
traffic pattern flight
Traffic Pattern Flight
  • Enter traffic pattern on 45 deg angle to center of downwind leg, or as directed by ATC
    • Maintain straight ground track using crab method, aircraft in trim
    • Maintain rate of climb/descent +/- 100 fpm, airspeed +/- 10 KIAS (90KIAS downwind/70KIAS crosswind/base), altitudes +/- 100 feet (500’ agl downwind, 300’ agl base or stagefield altitudes published in In-Flight Guide), roll out on desired hdg +/- 10 deg
    • Pilot on controls primarily focused outside, all other crewmembers assist as requested - clear all turns prior to beginning turn
    • Utilize proper power management to climb, level off, and descend as appropriate
emergency procedures
Emergency Procedures
  • Straight-Ahead Autorotation
  • Autorotation with Turn
straight ahead autorotation
Straight-Ahead Autorotation
  • Practice autorotation terminated with power, but should be planned as though an actual to a touchdown
    • To enter, smoothly lower collective to minimum, reduce throttle to flight idle, apply right pedal to maintain trim (coordinated flight)
    • Verbalize the underlined steps, check for normal engine instrument readings and rotor in the green during descent
    • Adjust aircraft attitude to attain desired glide speed; wings level, min of 70 KIAS, rotor in green, normal (< 3000fpm) rate of descent prior to flare
    • Initiate flare at 75-100 feet with smooth aft cyclic application (reduce rate of descent and groundspeed, allow rotor to build), once established slowly rotate throttle to full-open position
    • No lower than 25’, rotate aircraft to landing (hover attitude, very slightly nose high) attitude, initial power pull at 15-20’
    • Terminate with power no lower than 4’ above ground, 0-15 k gs, no lateral drift
straight ahead autorotation18
Straight-Ahead Autorotation
  • Standards
    • Entry altitude +/- 100 feet (Min straight 500’agl; turning 800’agl)
    • Entry airspeed 90KIAS +/- 10 KIAS
    • Verbalize underlined steps, select correct entry point
    • Rotor within limits (in green) throughout entire manuever
    • 70-100 KIAS at flare entry, flare initiated at 75-100 feet
    • Heading alignment within +/- 10 deg during power application
    • Smooth, precise controlled aircraft movement
    • Terminate no lower than 4’ with less than 15 k groundspeed
    • Landing attitude at termination with no lateral drift
turning autorotation
Turning Autorotation
  • Practice autorotation with 180 deg turn terminated with power, but should be planned as an actual to a touchdown
    • To enter, smoothly lower collective to minimum, reduce throttle to flight idle, apply right pedal to maintain trim, start turn to lane
    • Verbalize the underlined steps, check for normal engine instrument readings and rotor in the green during descent
    • Adjust aircraft attitude to attain desired glide speed (if a/s decreases during turn do not dive excessively), continue turn toward landing area
    • Must have wings level, min of 70 KIAS, rotor in green, normal (< 3000fpm) rate of descent, aligned with lane no lower than 150’AGL prior to flare (minor heading corrections on final allowed)
    • Initiate flare at 75-100 feet with smooth aft cyclic application (reduce rate of descent and groundspeed, allow rotor to build), once established slowly rotate throttle to full-open position
    • No lower than 25’, rotate aircraft to landing (hover attitude, very slightly nose high) attitude, initial power pull at 15-20’
    • Terminate with power no lower than 4’ above ground, 0-15 k gs, no lateral drift
turning autorotation20
Turning Autorotation
  • Standards
    • Entry altitude +/- 100 feet (Min straight 500’agl; turning 800’agl)
    • Entry airspeed 90KIAS +/- 10 KIAS
    • Verbalize underlined steps, select correct entry point
    • Rotor within limits (in green) throughout entire manuever
    • Maintain airspeed during descent 80 KIAS +/- 20 during turn
    • 70-100 KIAS at flare entry, flare initiated at 75-100 feet
    • Heading alignment within +/- 10 deg during power application
    • Smooth, precise controlled aircraft movement
    • Terminate no lower than 4’ with less than 15 k groundspeed
    • Landing attitude at termination with no lateral drift
autorotations
Autorotations
  • Warnings
    • Ensure collective at minimum setting to maintain rotor in limits and throttle application smooth when advancing throttle to full open; reduces stress applied to sprag clutch
    • Avoid low airspeed/high vertical descent during final portion; engine power/rotor inertia may not be sufficient to safely recover the aircraft
  • Notes
    • If at any time the success of the autorotation is in doubt initiate a immediate power recovery and/or go-around
    • Key elements for a successful autorotation are suitable glide speed and aircraft trim
    • Slight amount of back pressure on cyclic during turn will aid in getting through the turn and avoid diving
summary
Summary
  • Introduction
  • Takeoffs
  • Approaches
  • Traffic Patterns
  • Emergency Procedures
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