Colonization of Africa. 19 th Century. Colonialism. Colonialism is forced control of one nation by another nation. Beginning in the early 19 th Century, Europeans aggressively tried to establish colonies in Africa.
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Colonialism is forced control of one nation by another nation.
Colony is when a nation establishes a government under its rule in a foreign territory.
Imperialism is empire building by taking over other countries’ government’s trade, and culture.
When most European nations ended slavery in the early______, they shifted their focus to trading goods such as gold, ivory, and____________.
Soon after, the European powers divided up most of Africa. They used ______________to keep power. This is a policy of taking over other countries’ government’s trade, and culture.
In 1884 at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany\'s sphere of influence over Africa and desired to force Germany\'s rivals to struggle with one another for territory. At the time of the conference, 80% of Africa remained under traditional and local control.
Berlin Conference in 1884 led by Otto Von Bismarck, German Chancellor
20% of the Europeans already controlled.
By the end of Colonialism most of Africa was under its control.
Series of Meetings in Berlin, Germany, held by European nations, Africa’s rulers not in attendance.
Met to discuss how to divide Africa’s land.
"The Berlin Conference was Africa\'s undoing in more ways than one. The colonial countries superimposed or forced their powers on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, Africa had developeda condition or custom of political division that could not be eliminated or made to work properly as a government for the people.
African tribes lost control of their own countries.
Conflicts broke out between tribes that were once friendly.
Land was confiscated for farms for the European colonies.
Wars, revolts, and protests were common.
Starvation and disease became widespread.
“NEW BORDERS” were drawn that separated families and tribes.
Effects on Individual Countries and Regions
The British implementing the scorched earth policy - Boer warThe British found themselves at a disadvantage, due to the size of the territory, lack of familiarity with the terrain and the mobility and skills of the "Boers". In an effort to bring the war to an end, the British responded with a scorched-earth policy. This included burning down the farms and homes of the "Boers", and putting their women and children in concentration camps. Some 26,000 "Boer" women and children and 14,000 black and colored people were to die in appalling conditions.
The _______controlled much of East Africa. Large numbers of Europeans settled in Kenya. But most colonial rulers used African deputies to control the countries. Many deputies were traditional chiefs. They often favored their own peoples. This caused conflict between ethnic groups.
to influence feelings of national identity. Most East African countries gained independence in the early 1960s.________, however, was never colonized.
Independence did not solve all the problems of the former colonies. New challenges
faced the newly independent countries.
European countries claimed colonies in West Africa in the late 1800s and kept control until after___________. They built schools, roads, and railroads, but many Africans gave up farming and worked for low wages. All the countries in West Africa became independent by 1974.
World War II
In the 1800s _________ countries began invading
North Africa. By 1912 Spain and France controlled
Morocco, France also controlled Tunisia and
Algeria, Italy controlled Libya, and the British
independence in the mid-1900s. _______ was the last country to win independence in 1962. Today
the countries of North Africa are trying to build stronger ties to other Arab countries.
HISTORY OFNORTH AFRICA
Some of the Central African countries became rich from trading with the Europeans. But they were all weakened in time… Why?
The people of Central Africa speak hundreds of different languages. They also speak regional varieties of the same language or ____________.
The reason for the for the great variety is that each ethnic group speaks its own native languae or dialect of one such as _________. However each country has an offical language as well.
Religion in Central Africa draws heavily from its colonial history. Many of the countries that were once part of the former French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies are Roman Catholic while Protestant Christians can be found in former British Colonies.
“The Colossus of Rhodes”
British Boer War Correspondent, Winston Churchill